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Poetry Terms. Free Verse. Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme. This poetry imitates the natural rhythms of speech. Blank Verse. Poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Blank means not rhymed. Verse used by William Shakespeare. Iambic Pentameter.

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Free Verse

  • Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme. This poetry imitates the natural rhythms of speech.


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Blank Verse

  • Poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Blank means not rhymed.

  • Verse used by William Shakespeare.


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Iambic Pentameter

  • Five iambs - The most important verse in poetry form in the English epic and dramatic poetry.


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Sonnet

  • A fourteen line poem, a lyric, and usually in iambic pentameter.


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Ballad

  • A fairly short narrative poem written in a songlike stanza form.


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Lyric

  • Poetry that does not tell a story but aims at expressing an author’s thoughts or emotions.


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Imagery

  • Word pictures that appeal to the five senses


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Catalog Poem

  • A catalog poem is built on a list of images.

  • Sometimes it builds into a rolling rhythm.


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Scene

  • A setting which includes time and place

  • Setting may be implied or stated directly


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Haiku

  • A Japanese poetry form

  • 17 syllables, 5-7-5

  • presents images from everyday life

  • Contains seasonal word or symbol

  • Presents a moment of discovery or enlightenment


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Extended Imagery

  • Images that continue through several lines of poetry.


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Example of Extended Imagery

“Then a mile of warm sea-scented beach;

Three fields to cross till a farm appears,

A tap at the pane, the quick sharp scratch

And blue spurt of a lighted match.”

Robert Browning

From “Meeting at Night”


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Cliche

  • An overused word, worn-out expression or phrase


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Allusion

  • A reference to a statement, person, place, event, or thing that is known from literature, history, religion, myth, politics, sports, science, or pop culture.


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Symbolism

  • A person, place, thing, or event that stands for itself and something beyond itself.



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Simile

  • A figure of speech in which an explicit comparison is made between two things essentially unlike, using such words or phrases as like, as, than, similar to, resembles, or seems.


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Metaphor

  • A figure of speech in which an implicit comparison is made between two things essentially unlike.


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Personification

  • A figure of speech in which human attributes are given to an animal, an object, or a concept.


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Hyperbole

  • An exaggeration for effect


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Rhyme

  • Repetition of similar sounds or words, within a line or at the end of a line


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Half-rhyme

  • Also called near rhyme or slant rhyme

  • Words are alike in some sound but do not exactly sound the same

  • Example: now and know


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Approximate RhymesNear RhymesSlant Rhymes

  • Two words are alike in some sound but do not rhyme exactly

  • Example:

    now and know


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Stanza

  • Group of consecutive lines in a poem that form a single unit

  • Couplet 2

  • Tercet 3

  • Quatrain 4

  • Cinquain 5


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Stanza Continued

  • Sestet 6

  • Heptastich 7

  • Octave 8


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Rhyme Scheme

  • Applying the letters of the alphabet to new sounds of words at the end of each line.

  • I will go a

  • To the show a

  • We will eat b

  • At our seat b


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Meters

  • Monometer = 1

  • Dimeter =2

  • Trimeter =3

  • Tetrameter =4

  • Pentameter =5

  • Hexameter =6


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Meter continued

  • Heptameter = 7

  • Octameter = 8



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Alliteration

  • Repetition of consonant sounds in words that are close together


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Consonance

  • Repetition of consonant sounds within the words in a line of poetry


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Assonance

  • Repetition of similar vowel sounds that are followed by different consonant sounds

    Example: base and fade

    young and love


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Repetition

  • Words, phrases, or lines that repeat in the poem


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Internal Rhyme

  • Words that rhyme within one line of poetry.


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Internal Rhyme

  • Rhymes in the middle of a line

  • “Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary.”

    Edgar Allan Poe, from “The Raven”


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Onomatopoeia

  • Words that sound like their meaning


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Rhythm

  • Alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables in language


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Meter

  • Poetic feet

  • A generally regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables


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Kinds of Feet Meter or Rhythm

  • Iamb da Dah

  • Trochee Dah da

  • Anapest da da Dah

  • Dactyl Dah da da

  • Spondee Dah Dah

  • These sounds are syllables or words.


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Scansion

  • Reading in an exaggerated way to find the rhythm (meter).


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Theme

  • The underlying meaning or idea of the poem


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Oxymoron

  • A figure of speech that combines apparently contradictory ideas.

  • Example: jumbo shrimp


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Apostrophe

  • A figure of speech in which a writer directly addresses an absent or dead person, an abstract quality, or something non-human as if it were present and capable of responding.


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Implied Metaphor

  • Comparison that suggests rather than directly states that one think is something else.

  • Words suggest the nature of the comparison.


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Narration

  • Type of writing or speaking that tells about a series of related events. (The other types of writing are description, exposition, and persuasion.)


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Style

  • The choice of words, phrases, and sentences

  • Placement on the page

  • Dialect or regional speech

  • Poetic forms, such as ode, ballad, sonnet, or lyric, to name a few


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Diction

  • Choice of words


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Speaker

  • The voice that is talking to us in a poem.


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Pun

  • Play on multiple meanings of a word or two words that sound alike but with different meanings. Shakespeare was a great punster.


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Dialect

  • Way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people.


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Rhetorical Question

  • A question asked but not intended by the speaker to be answered.


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Understatement

  • To represent as less than is the case


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Epithet

  • A short descriptive phrase pointing out an outstanding quality of a character.


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Implied Ideas

  • Information in a poem that implies meaning, but it does not say explicitly.

  • Many poems ask the reader to “read between the lines.”


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Irony

  • Verbal - The difference between what one says and what one means

  • Situational – The difference between what seems appropriate and what really happens, or when what we expect to happen is in fact quite contradictory to what really does take place.


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Irony Continued

  • Dramatic Irony – When the audience or the reader knows something important that a character in a play or story does not know.


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Extended Metaphor

  • A comparison developed over several lines or the entire poem.


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Analogy

  • An analogy is a comparison of two pairs of words. The words in each pair have the same relationship to each other.


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Paraphrase

  • A restatement of the content of a poem designed to make its prose meaning as clear as possible.


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Tone

  • The author’s attitude toward his/her material. Tone depends on word choice.


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Conflict

  • Struggle or clash between opposing characters or between opposing forces.

  • External conflicts

    Man vs. Man social

    Man vs. Nature physical

    Man vs. Fate metaphysical


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Conflict Continued

  • Internal Conflict

    Man vs. Himself- psychological


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Rhyme Scheme

  • Assigning letters of the alphabet to rhyming lines in order to establish the kind of poem.


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Rhymed Couplet

  • Two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme.


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End-stopped Line

  • Punctuation at the end of the line.


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Run-on Line

  • No punctuation at the end of the line, which means that the reader continues the phrases without pausing or stopping.


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Shakespearean Sonnet

  • Three, four line stanzas, plus a couplet.Each stanza reflects a thought and the couplet give an answer or a conclusion.

  • Abab, cdcd, efef, gg


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Italian Sonnet

  • Also called Petrarchan Sonnet

  • One octave, one sestet

  • The octave establishes a problem, the sestet gives a solution

  • Abba, abba, cde, cde


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Prose Poem

  • A prose poem is a compact and rhythmic composition written in the form of a prose paragraph.

  • Like any poem, a prose poem often presents its message by means of a vivid figure of speech.


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Denotation

  • Dictionary definition of a word


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Connotation

  • All the meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests


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Dramatic Monologue

  • A dramatic monologue is a poem in which a character speaks to one or more listeners. The reactions of the listener must be inferred by the reader.