Exploring American History Unit VII- The Beginning of Modern America Chapter 23 Section 3 Americans in World War I
Americans in World War I • The Big Idea • American troops helped the Allies achieve victory in World War I. • Main Ideas • American soldiers started to arrive in Europe in 1917. • The Americans helped the Allies win the war. • Germany agreed to an armistice after suffering heavy losses.
Main Idea 1: American soldiers started to arrive in Europe in 1917. • Americans joined the fight in Europe in 1917 • American Expeditionary Force • General John J. Pershing
Arriving in Europe • The first U.S. troops arrived in France in 1917 through a convoy system. • When America arrived, Germany occupied all of Belgium and part of France, and Russia struggled against famine and civil war. • If Russia fell. • General Pershing, however, wanted American troops to train and to fight separately .
American Expeditionary Force (AEF) May 1918 • Doughboys- • Belleau Wood and Chateau-Thierry. Argonne Forest. • 85,000 American help save Paris • General John J. (Black Jack) Pershing has an army of 1/2 million on the Southern Front. • Oct. 1918- Battle of Sedan- • U.S. lost 50,280 men, and 25,000 to disease. 42,000 Black troop fought in French units. • Russia, England and France lost over 4 million total. 1 million other countries. • Armistice- November 11, 1918- 11th hour, 11th day of the 11th month.
Russia Leaves the War Revolution in Russia • November 1917: - Bolsheviks overthrew the Russian government. • Bolsheviks were Communists. New Government • Vladimir Lenin • Knew the war had reached a desperate point • March 1918: Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking itself out of World War I.
American Soldiers Arrive Recall- What were U.S. Troops known as? Explain – What condition led to the Russian pullout?
Main Idea 2:The Americans helped the Allies win the war. • With Russia gone, Germany planned to smash the stalemate. • July 1918– German forces launch final offensive- 2nd Battle of the Marne River • Terrible losses forced them to stop. • American troops helped force a major turning point in the war.
Winning the War Recall- Which side had an advantage after the Russian pullout? Identify Cause and Effect – How did the Germans respond to the Russian pullout?
Winning the War Recall- When did Greece join the Allied Powers? Evaluate – Why do you suppose the Allied victories happened in the same geographic location?
Main Idea 3:Germany agreed to an armistice after suffering heavy losses. • More than 1 million U.S. troops in France • Began winning victories against German forces • By November 1918.
Winning the War Identify- What led to the death of German civilians near the end of the war? Evaluate – Should the Kaiser have fled to the Netherlands? Explain.
Germany Defeated • Germans were tired of war. • Food shortages • Riots and strikes • Shortage of soldiers • Germany’s allies were also eager to end the war. • German leader Kaiser Wilhelm II fled to Holland. • Armistice, or truce, on November 11, 1918.
Armistice Recall- What did the “Harlem Hellfighters” do that no other American force achieved? Make Generalizations – What quality of the 369 Infantry caused France to award them the Croix de Guerre?