Exploring American History. American History Unit VII – The Beginning of Modern America Chapter 22 Section 2- The Spanish-American War. The Spanish-American War : 10:15. The Spanish-American War. The Big Idea
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Exploring American History American History Unit VII – The Beginning of Modern America Chapter 22 Section 2- The Spanish-American War
The Spanish-American War • The Big Idea • The United States expanded into new parts of the world as a result of the Spanish-American War. • Main Ideas • In 1898 the United States went to war with Spain in the Spanish-American War. • The United States gained territories in the Caribbean and Pacific.
Main Idea 1: In 1898 the United States went to war with Spain in the Spanish-American War. • In the late 1890s, Cubans rebelled against Spain. • Conflict widely reported in U.S. newspapers, especially by publishers Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst • Printed sensational, often exaggerated news stories: technique called yellow journalism • Stories helped increase public support for military action • William McKinley, a supporter of Cuban independence, was elected in 1896.
American’s Get War Fever • Americans supported Cuba- Revolutionary war and opposed the actions of General Weyler. • Media’s Role • William Randolph Hearst- Publisher- New York Journal • Joseph Pulitzer- Publisher – New York World • Yellow Journalism- Scandalous stories and shocking illustrations. Competition to sell newspapers. • Both papers put their support behind the Cuban rebels.
War with Spain The United States sends the battleship USS Maine to Havana Harbor to protect U.S. citizens and economic interests in Cuba. January 1898 USS Maine sunk; newspapers blame Spain. February 15, 1898 Congress passes a resolution declaring Cuba independent and demand that Spain leave. They also passed the Teller Amendment, which said that the United States had no interest in controlling Cuba. April 20, 1898 April 20, 1898 Spain declares war on the United States.
American’s Get War Fever • The Explosion of the “Maine.” • The de Lome Letter- Written by Spain’s minister to the U.S. Hearst printed it in the paper. • The letter accused McKinley or being “weak and catering to the rabble.” • Americans looked at this as an insult. • “Jingoes” people who loved to see a fight, they wanted war. • “Maine” sent to Havana harbor to protect lives and property of Americans (Sugar Plantations). • February 15, 1898- “Maine” blows up. “Remember the Maine!” • How did it happen?- Spanish? Cuban Rebels? A fire in the coal storage? • McKinley demands Spain give Cuba its independence. Spain refuses and we declare war.
War in the Philippines- 3:40 • The U.S. Navy, under Commodore George Dewey, won a quick victory over the Spanish Pacific fleet in the Philippines on May 1, 1898. • None of Dewey’s men were killed in battle. • Dewey had to wait for additional troops to be sent to secure the Philippines. • On August 13, U.S. troops and Filipino rebels led by Emilio Aguinaldo took control of the Philippine capital of Manila.
War in the Caribbean • U.S. Army unprepared for Spanish-American War • Troops had to be increased—from 28,000 to 280,000. • Did not have enough rifles, bullets, or uniforms • Harsh living conditions • 400 killed in battle; 2,000 died of disease • Rough Riders were a group of volunteers commanded by Theodore Roosevelt. • Admired by American people for heroism • Contributed to solid U.S. victories at Santiago and Kettle Hill • Spanish Caribbean fleet was destroyed on July 3, 1898. • U.S. troops invaded Puerto Rico in mid-July. • Spain signed a cease-fire agreement on August 12, 1898.
War With Spain • Explain – Why did Pulitzer and Hearst use yellow journalism in their newpapers? • IdentifyCause and Effect – List four events that led Congress to declare war on Spain. • Develop – How might the situation in Cuba have been developed if the United States had found evidence that the explosion of the Maine was accidental?
War With Spain • Recall – Who commanded the warships that defeated the Spanish in the Philippines? • Explain - Why didn’t Dewey occupy the Philippines immediately after defeating the Spanish? • Identify Cause and Effect – What caused the moral problems for soldiers in the Caribbean? • Making Inferences- How did Theodore Roosevelt’s reputation affect his involvement with Rough Riders?
War With Spain • Describe – How did the Spanish fleet fare when they tried to break through the U.S. blockade around Cuba? • Make Inferences - Why do you suppose the Spanish in Puerto Rico surrendered so easily?
U.S. victory over Spain elevated the American position in the world. • Spain gave up all claims to Cuba. • The United States gained territory in Puerto Rico and Guam. • Spain turned over the Philippines for $20 million. • Territorial gains strengthened the military and economic position of the United States.
The Course of the War • Consequences of the War • Terms of the Peace Treaty • Spain gives up all claims to Cuba, cede Puerto Rico and Guam to the U.S. • Philippines turned over to U.S. for $20 million. • Sweet victory for the U.S.- John Hay ambassador to Great Britain in a letter to Theodore Roosevelt called it “a splendid little war”. • Costs to the U.S. • $250 million and over 2,000 soldier deaths (mostly from yellow fever) • Huge payoff for U.S.- U.S. now an imperialistic nation- an expansionists delight.
Main Idea 2:The United States gained territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific. • Territorial Gains • Peace treaty placed Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines under U.S. control. • Some Americans formed the Anti-Imperialist League, opposing the treaty and the creation of an American colonial empire. • Treaty approved in Senate by one vote more than two-thirds majority needed
New U.S. Territories • Cuba • U.S. military government put in place. • Commission was sent to Cuba to fight disease. • Constitution drafted and included Platt Amendment,allowing American intervention in Cuban affairs • Puerto Rico • Like Cubans and Filipinos, Puerto Ricans had hoped for independence. • Made a U.S. territory • Puerto Ricans were granted U.S. citizenship in 1917. • The Philippines • Spain surrendered Philippines for $20 million. • Filipinos revolted against U.S. control. • Conflict ended in 1902. • Congress passed Philippine Government Act in 1902.
United States Gains Territories • Explain – Why did McKinley set up a military government in Cuba? • Evaluate - Judge the reasoning of the Anti-Imperialist League. • Recall – When did the United States government stop being actively involved in Cuban affairs?
United States Gains Territories • Identify – What three things were accomplished in Cuba by Leonard Wood? • Interpret - What was meant by the Cuban complaint that they were “handing over the keys to our house”? • Compare – How were the hopes of the Puerto Ricans similar to the those of the Cubans?
United States Gains Territories • Identify – Calculate the year in which Puerto Ricans were finally allowed to elect their own governor. • Analyze - Why did President McKinley want control of the Philippines?
The Price of Freedom- Website Spanish American War- 1898-1902