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Evolution of species. Cladistics. A simple and objective way of constructing phylogenies (phylogenetic trees) Focus on shared derived characters Clade – group of organisms related by descent Synapomorphy – shared derived character of a clade

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cladistics
Cladistics
  • A simple and objective way of constructing phylogenies (phylogenetic trees)
  • Focus on shared derived characters
  • Clade – group of organisms related by descent
  • Synapomorphy – shared derived character of a clade
  • Cladogram – the branching diagram representing the phylogeny
  • plesiomorphy - ancestral traits
  • apomorphy - derived character evolved within a clade
mode of speciation
Mode of speciation
  • Gradualism vs. punctuated equilibrium
sympatry vs allopatry
Sympatry vs. allopatry
  • Sympatry – species that co-occur in space and time
  • Allopatry – species that do not overlap in distribution
  • Speciation most readily occurs in allopatry
islands
Islands
  • Importance to speciation due to isolation
slide16

Angiosperms

Gymnosperms

Pteridophytes

slide17

Day 1 in the life of earth

Evolution of life

First Bacteria

1 Billion

Sudden increase in

Diversity

4 Billion

Today

4.5 Billion

slide22
- 3500 Pre-Cambrian– protosynthesis, prokaryotes, first eucaryotes, multicelluar organisms.
  • 545 Cambrian – huge increase in diversity, first algae, first vertebrates, invertebrates dominate.
  • 500 Ordovician – plants colonize land
  • 440 Silurian – fish, insects plus other inverts colonize land
  • 410 Devonian – amphibians colonize land
  • 355 Carboniferous – Extensive forests, amphibians dominate on land, first reptiles
  • 290 Permian – Pangea forms, reptiles dominate land
  • 250 Triassic – early dinosaurs, first mammals
  • 205 Jurassic – continents begin to separate, first birds, flowering plants
  • 145 Cretaceous – flowering plants dominate land, dinosaurs go extinct
  • 65 Tertiary – continents near present position, flowering plants, birds and mammals, pollinating insects
  • 1.8 Quaternary – repeated advance and retreat of glaciers, humans, large mammals and birds go extinct.