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Performance - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Performance. Atmosphere . 78 percent nitrogen 21 percent oxygen 1 percent other (helium, argon) Most oxygen is contained below 35,000 feet altitude. Atmospheric Pressure. As air becomes less dense, it reduces; Power, because the engine takes in less air

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atmosphere
Atmosphere
  • 78 percent nitrogen
  • 21 percent oxygen
  • 1 percent other (helium, argon)
  • Most oxygen is contained below 35,000 feet altitude
atmospheric pressure
Atmospheric Pressure
  • As air becomes less dense, it reduces;
    • Power, because the engine takes in less air
    • Thrust because the propeller is less efficient in thin air
    • Lift, because the thin air exerts less force on the airfoils
atmospheric pressure4
Atmospheric Pressure
  • Standard at sea level: 59 Degrees F or 15 Degrees C, Surface pressure of 29.92, or 1013.2 millibars
  • Standard Lapse rate:3.5 F or 2 C per thousand feet up to 36,000
pressure altitude
Pressure Altitude
  • Height above a standard datum plane (29.92)
  • To find your pressure altitude:
    • Set altimeter to 29.92 and read indicated
    • Apply correction factor to the indicated altitude according to reported altimeter setting
      • Ex. If the reported altimeter setting is 29.82, Subtract it from 29.92 (the standard altimeter) for a difference of 0.1, then multiply that by 1000 and add it to the altitude of the airport (845). Pressure altitude = 945 feet
density altitude
Density Altitude
  • Pressure altitude corrected for non standard temperature
  • As density of air increases, it is considered a lower density altitude and vice versa (this is because you are lower to the ground)
  • As density altitude increases, performance increases
  • As density altitude decreases, performance decreases
  • To find density altitude, you must take into account pressure and temperature, you do this when you use your POH to find your performance
climb performance
Climb Performance
  • Your ability to climb is dependent on excess thrust
  • Rate of climb depends on flight speed and the inclination of the flight path
climb performance10
Climb Performance
  • Absolute Ceiling
    • Altitude at which you can no longer climb
  • Service Ceiling
    • Altitude at which you are unable to climb at a rate greater than 100 feet
range
Range
  • How far you can fly on a specific amount of fuel (the furthest distance for the least amount of fuel)
  • Max Range is obtained at the maximum lift/drag ratio, or L/D max
    • Unaffected by weight or altitude
endurance
Endurance
  • Most amount of time aloft for a given amount of fuel
  • Max endurance given when at the point o fminimum power required since this would require the lowest fuel flow to keep the airplane in steady, level flight
factors effecting range and endurance
Factors Effecting Range and Endurance
  • Weight
  • Density Altitude
  • External aerodynamic configuration of the airplane
ground effect
Ground Effect
  • Interference in the three dimensional airflow around the aircraft
  • Occurs within one wingspan of the ground
    • Most significant when at a constant low altitude at a low speed in a low wing airplane
  • Decrease in induced drag allows for greater performance
region of reversed command
Region of Reversed Command
  • “Back side of Power Curve”
  • Power for altitude, Pitch for airspeed
  • Low speed phases of flight
runway surface and gradient
Runway Surface and Gradient
  • Gravel
  • Turf/muddy
  • Potholes/rough pavement
  • Uphill runway
  • Downhill runway
  • Obstructions
    • Mud, snow, standing water
hydroplaning
Hydroplaning
  • Water reduces friction between the tires and the ground, reduce braking effectiveness
  • Braking and Directional Control lost
  • Higher speeds increase the hydroplaning hazard because the water can’t move out of the way fast enough
  • Land into the wind, no abrupt control inputs, brake smoothly – use aerodynamic braking
estimating performance
Estimating Performance
  • Most Performance charts assume that you are using a dry, paved runway in standard conditions.
  • Your actual conditions as well as piloting experience will influence your actual takeoff and landing performance
  • POH should still be used as a guide