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Transcription. The Central Dogma. DNA Transcription RNA Translation Proteins. replication. transcription. translation. GOAL. Use DNA to make a Protein Step 1: Replicate DNA Step 2: Transcribe DNA into RNA Step 3: Translate RNA into a protein Where does this happen? Step 1: Nucleus

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Presentation Transcript
the central dogma
The Central Dogma
  • DNA
  • Transcription
  • RNA
  • Translation
  • Proteins
slide3

replication

transcription

translation

GOAL
  • Use DNA to make a Protein
    • Step 1: Replicate DNA
    • Step 2: Transcribe DNA into RNA
    • Step 3: Translate RNA into a protein
  • Where does this happen?
    • Step 1: Nucleus
    • Step 2: Nucleus
    • Step 3: Cytoplasm

Ribosomes

rna vs dna
RNA vs. DNA

DNA

RNA

Sugar: Ribose

Bases: A,U,C,G

Single Stranded

  • Sugar: Deoxyribose
  • Bases: A,T,C,G
  • Double Stranded
slide5
RNA
  • Stands for: Ribonucleic Acid
  • Three Types:
    • mRNA
      • Carries the message from the DNA to the ribosome
    • tRNA
      • Brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosome
    • rRNA
      • Makes up part of the ribosome
transcription basics
Transcription Basics
  • Process of taking DNA and turning it into RNA
  • Uses enzymes: Chemical Reaction
  • Happens in the nucleus
transcription1

RNA Polymerase

start site

nucleotides

Transcription
  • Starts because of an enzyme called RNA polymerase
  • This enzyme starts to unwind the DNA at the start of a gene
  • Nucleotides pair with ONE strand of DNA
  • RNA Polymerase (enzyme) bonds them together

DNA molecule

transcription2

mRNA

Transcription
  • DNA winds back up
  • mRNA detaches and leaves the nucleus
transcription vs replication similarities
Transcription vs Replication Similarities
  • Both involve enzymes
  • Both pair the matching bases together
  • Happens in the nucleus
transcription vs replication differences
Transcription

Only copies ONE gene

Only copies ONE side

A will match with U instead of T

Final Product: mRNA

Replication

Copies the ENTIRE strand

Copies BOTH sides

A will match with T

Final Product: Same thing you started with (DNA)

Transcription vs Replication Differences
goal of translation
Goal of Translation
  • Convert mRNA into amino acids that will end up building a protein
  • Proteins are polymers of amino acids
amino acids are coded by mrna base sequences

codon for

methionine (Met)

codon for

leucine (Leu)

Amino acids are coded by mRNA base sequences.
  • Codons are three letters words
  • There are 64 different codons
  • Each word means (translates) into ONE of the AMINO ACIDS
codons
Codons

Review: Codon=3 nucleotides that are read together.

If this is the strand of mRNA:

UCGCACGGU

The codons are:

UCG-CAC-GGU

How many codons are there?

3

amino acids are linked to become a protein
Amino acids are linked to become a protein
  • An anticodon is a set of three nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA codon.
  • An anticodon is carried by a tRNA.
your turn
Your Turn

Strand of mRNA:

AUGCGUACCUUAUAA

What are the codons?

AUG-CGU-ACC-UUA-UAA

What are the anticodons?

UAC-GCA-UGG-AAU-AUU

slide18

tRNA carries amino acid to ribosome

  • ribosome forms bonds between the amino acids.
important notes
Important Notes
  • Start: ALWAYS start with codon AUG
    • What amino acid will you always start with?
    • Methionine (AUG)
  • End: ALWAYS end with a STOP
    • Which codons will that be?
    • UAA, UAG, UGA