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CVFD Training – Inspection Practices. SFFMA Training Objectives: 11-01.01 – 11-01.04. CHAPTER 1. Introduction Authority Public and private sector Inspector’s legal status Police power Liability incurred as a result of authority Outside technical assistance Right of entry

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cvfd training inspection practices

CVFD Training – Inspection Practices

SFFMA Training Objectives:

11-01.01 – 11-01.04

chapter 1
CHAPTER 1
  • Introduction
  • Authority
  • Public and private sector Inspector’s legal status
  • Police power
  • Liability incurred as a result of authority
  • Outside technical assistance
  • Right of entry
  • Modification of requirements, appeals procedures, and judicial review
  • Enforcement procedures
introduction
INTRODUCTION

Fire Prevention inspections are the single most important nonemergency activity performed by the fire service

inspector s qualities
INSPECTOR’S QUALITIES
  • Inspectors must have a great deal of knowledge regarding fire safety and building codes
  • Versatile personality-dealing with a wide variety of people
  • Good written and oral communications skills
inspectors must have thorough knowledge of
INSPECTORS MUST HAVE THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE OF
  • Statutes that create their position
  • Statutes that requires fire prevention activities
  • Laws, codes, and ordinances that establish a fire Inspector’s duties and responsibilities
  • The edition of the code being used and when it was adopted
  • The appeals process
  • Ways that laws or statutes can be changed
authority
AUTHORITY
  • Inspectors must know liabilities inherent in being public officers or employees
  • Inspectors must know the limits and scope of their authority as fire Inspectors
police power
POLICE POWER
  • Inspectors have power to issue citations
  • Inspectors have power to shut down a business
  • Inspectors have power to issue inspection warrants
  • Inspectors have no power to arrest an individual
  • Inspectors will call police or an Arson Investigator to obtain identification if needed
private sector inspector s legal status
PRIVATE SECTOR INSPECTOR’S LEGAL STATUS
  • Private company Inspector-Safety Officer
  • Insurance company Inspector-targets property preservations versus life safety concerns
liability incurred as a result of authority
LIABILITY INCURRED AS A RESULT OF AUTHORITY
  • The lines of liability may be established by state and or local statutes
  • In general, fire Inspectors are not held liable for discretionary acts
  • Fire Inspectors may be held liable for ministerial actions
  • Limits of liability to the jurisdiction must be adopted by the authority having jurisdiction
inspectors liabilities cont
INSPECTORS LIABILITIES (cont.)
  • Special duty
  • Duty to inspect
  • Civil rights-high priced, high profile affairs
prevention of liability
PREVENTION OF LIABILITY
  • Periodic training is necessary to renew skills and knowledge-codes always changing
  • Inspectors should conduct fewer, but more thorough, inspections
  • Conduct quality re-inspections in a timely manner
outside technical assistance
OUTSIDE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
  • Fire Protection Engineer
  • Architects and Designers
  • Technicians (alarm, sprinkler, emergency generators, etc.)
right of entry
RIGHT OF ENTRY
  • The right to enter a property to inspect for code compliance is essential in order for fire Inspectors to fulfill their duties
  • The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that property owners have the right to refuse admittance to an Inspector unless a warrant is obtained
  • Where no known or suspected fire hazard exists, insisting on making an inspection in a dwelling is generally considered to be an unreasonable search
  • To insist on gaining entry to a commercial property without a warrant violates the fourth and fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution
right of entry cont
RIGHT OF ENTRY (cont.)
  • Most of the model codes that a jurisdiction may adopt have language in them regarding right of entry
  • The Fire Inspector must understand the process for obtaining a search warrant
  • Any form that is developed by the fire department for obtaining information for a search warrant should be approved by the jurisdiction’s counsel
modifications of requirements
MODIFICATIONS OF REQUIREMENTS
  • Requests to modify the code generally involve the property owner’s desire to use alternative materials, products, or systems to meet the intent of the code
  • The modification must meet or surpass the level of protection provide in the code
  • In most jurisdictions, fire Inspectors have little authority to approve modification of code requirements
  • Most interpretations are from a superior inspection bureau officer, a fire protection engineer on staff, a fire protection consultant, or an appeals board
modification of requirements cont
MODIFICATION OF REQUIREMENTS (cont.)
  • To receive consideration for a code modification, the applicant must generally make a formal written request to the authority having jurisdiction
  • If the applicant feels the decision is unfair, the individual can file an appeal
appeals procedures
APPEALS PROCEDURES
  • Most codes establish an appeals procedure with a Board of Appeals to interpret the code and issue a ruling
  • The Board of Appeals usually consists of three to seven members
  • A one-time variance means the decision is binding for this particular circumstance and may not be directly applied to other similar situations
  • If the Board of Appeals rules that the code is too vague for enforcement, the fire Inspectors must take steps to ensure that the vagueness in the code is removed
  • A period of seven days from the time of the inspection is a common figure for an appeal
appeals procedure cont
APPEALS PROCEDURE (cont.)
  • Inspection made
  • Occupant appeals to Fire Prevention Board Officer
  • Decision made-Occupant agrees or disagrees
  • Appeals to the Fire Chief
  • Decision made-Occupant agrees or disagrees
  • Appeals to the Appeals Board-Final decision made
inspection benefits and advantages
INSPECTION BENEFITS AND ADVANTAGES
  • Make Firefighters aware of potential hazards
  • Provides information to the building occupants and owners
inspection procedures
INSPECTION PROCEDURES
  • Preparing for an inspection
  • Scheduling an inspection
  • Introduction
  • Conducting the inspection
  • Final interview
  • Follow-up
  • Inspection report and map
preparing for an inspection
PREPARING FOR AN INSPECTION
  • The preparation phase is one of the most important parts of the inspection process
  • The preparation phase begins by scheduling the inspection
  • Use common sense in the manner in which inspections are scheduled
  • Schedule inspections in general area
  • Review previous inspection reports for that particular facility
  • Be knowledgeable of the code for that occupancy type
  • Make sure all tools and equipment is in the car and ready
conducting the inspection
CONDUCTING THE INSPECTION
  • The first step in conducting an inspection is arriving at the scheduled time
  • Inspect the occupancies during normal business hours (nightclubs, restaurants, schools, etc.)
  • Observe exterior of the structure before entering
  • Enter business through the main public entrance
  • Contact the person you made the appointment with
  • If a surprise inspection, ask for highest ranking employee
  • Give a short briefing describing the inspection process
conducting the inspection cont
CONDUCTING THE INSPECTION (cont.)
  • Make sure the representative has keys to all doors, even the

MYSTERY DOORS

  • Never conduct an inspection by yourself
  • Conduct the inspection in a systematic approach
  • Start with the exterior
  • Three common methods for performing an inspection
  • Do not demand entry to a locked door-move on and document
  • Take photographs of violations and when in compliance-they make for great evidence in court –

I’VE NEVER LOST ONE YET

conducting the inspection cont1
CONDUCTING THE INSPECTION (cont.)
  • Use inspection form or a checklist - this is a must
  • Always document the important information, will be very valuable back at the office
  • For most routine inspections, a well completed inspection form, along with appropriate drawings and sketches, will be the only documentation need to record the inspection
final interview
FINAL INTERVIEW
  • Upon completion of the inspection, conduct a final interview with the person in CHARGE of the property
  • Note good conditions as well as violations
  • Try to sell the inspection report as a positive
  • Avoid confrontations and hostility
  • Always thank the owner for his/her time
  • Inform the owner of the re-inspection date if possible
inspection drawings
INSPECTION DRAWINGS
  • Field Sketch-rough drawing of the building made during the inspection
  • The field sketch should have all hazards and their locations specifically noted
  • The field sketch is used to make the final inspection drawing
  • There are three types of drawings used to show building information, plot plan, floor plan, elevation view
inspection drawings cont
INSPECTION DRAWINGS (cont.)
  • The plot plan is used to indicate how the building is situated with respect to other buildings and streets in the area
  • The floor plan shows the layout of the individual floors and the roof
  • Most of the building detail can be shown on the floor plan
  • The elevation drawing is used to show both the number of floors in the building and the grade around the building
  • Some agencies also prefer to attach the original field sketches to the final drawing that will be filed
written letters and reports
WRITTEN LETTERS AND REPORTS
  • Fire Inspectors must record every fire inspection
  • Formal letter or report-life-threatening hazards, major renovations, extensive list of minor violations
  • The report should be based on facts, not opinions
  • The report may be sent by registered mail or in person
  • Most reports are computer generated-stored in electronic form
  • It is important that you generate a letter or report that is well written, clean, and businesslike
  • In general, it is preferable that the report be typewritten or computer generated
written letters and reports cont
WRITTEN LETTERS AND REPORTS (cont.)
  • Basic writing techniques include:
    • Use of complete sentences
    • Proper grammar
    • Appropriate use of words
written letters and reports cont1
WRITTEN LETTERS AND REPORTS (cont.)
  • Two methods to overcome problem areas of report writing are:
    • Practice writing skills
    • Have a second person proofread the report
written letters and reports cont2
WRITTEN LETTERS AND REPORTS (cont.)
  • Basic writing techniques include: 1. Use of complete sentences 2. Proper grammar 3. Appropriate use of words
  • Two methods to overcome problem areas of report writing are: 1. Practice writing skills 2. Have a second person proofread the report
  • Written communications are an integral part of a fire Inspector’s everyday activity, so it is crucial that clear and effective communications become second nature
follow up inspections
FOLLOW-UP INSPECTIONS
  • Follow-up inspections are made to ensure that the recommendations made in the inspection report have been followed
  • Schedule a re-inspection date when report is delivered or mailed
  • Only violation areas are re-inspected
  • Compliment the owner if all violations are corrected-send a follow-up letter stating same
  • If some hazards remain, schedule another re-inspection and compliment the owner for the violations corrected so far
follow up inspections cont
FOLLOW-UP INSPECTIONS (cont.)
  • If the hazards have not been corrected, and no effort has been shown, issue a final notice with a date for another re-inspection
  • The final notice should inform the owner what legal action will be taken if full compliance is not attained by the date specified
maintaining files and records
MAINTAINING FILES AND RECORDS
  • One of the most crucial functions carried out by any fire prevention bureau or division is that of maintaining accurate files and records of all occupancies they are responsible for inspecting
  • It is most desirable to maintain files for all properties (excluding one and two family residences) within the jurisdiction
  • It is recommended that records be maintained on a building for the entire life of that building
  • All files and records maintained by the fire prevention bureau are considered public domain documents (Open Records Act)
maintaining files and records cont
MAINTAINING FILES AND RECORDS (cont.)
  • Some agencies that have computerized their inspection documentation process have also chosen to print hard copies of the information and maintain them in a written file
  • Each inspected property should have a file that contains copies of all building and inspection records for that property
  • The most reliable method of cataloging inspection records is by the building’s street address
  • Large jurisdiction’s may have whole rooms dedicated to file storage
maintaining files and records cont1
MAINTAINING FILES AND RECORDS (cont.)
  • There are two primary methods by which data may be logged into the computer system:
    • Inspectors use laptop computers or handheld electronic data recording equipment (the more efficient of the two)
    • Inspectors use written forms to record the information while performing the inspection and then manually enter the information into the computer system upon returning to the office
fire fighter 1

FIRE FIGHTER 1

INSPECTIONS

SECTION 112

principles of combustion
Principles of Combustion
  • Fire is actually a by-product of a larger process called combustion
  • Combustion is the self-sustaining process of rapid oxidation of a fuel, which produces heat and light
  • Fire is the result of a rapid combustion reaction.
  • An example of very slow oxidation is rusting
principles of combustion cont
Principles of Combustion Cont.
  • The fire triangle illustrates that oxygen, fuel, and heat in certain proportions create a fire; that if any of the three elements is removed, a fire cannot exist
  • The fire tetrahedron illustrates that fuel, heat, oxygen, and a chemical chain reaction is required to continue flaming combustion
  • Heat is a form of energy that may be described as a condition of “matter in motion” caused by the movement of molecules
principles of combustion cont1
Principles of Combustion Cont.
  • The five general categories of heat energy are as follows: chemical, electrical, mechanical, nuclear, and solar
  • Spontaneous heating is the heating of an organic substance without the addition of external heat
  • The three main phases of fire are: incipient, steady-state burning phase, hot-smoldering phase
principles of combustion cont2
Principles of Combustion Cont.
  • Incipient phase-is the earliest phase of a fire, temperatures around 1000 degrees. Rollover, sometimes referred to as flameover, takes place when unburned combustible gases accumulate at the ceiling level.
  • Steady State Burning Phase-total involvement phase, temperatures around 1300 degrees. Flashover occurs during this phase, simultaneous ignition of all combustibles in the room.
principles of combustion cont3
Principles of Combustion Cont.
  • Hot-Smoldering Phase-oxygen below 15%. Temperatures may be around the 1000degree range. A backdraft may occur when oxygen is improperly introduced into a hot-smoldering phase fire.
principles of combustion cont4
Principles of Combustion Cont.
  • Heat can travel throughout a burning building by one or more of three methods:

a. Conduction-direct contact

b. Convection-transfer of heat by movement of air

c. Radiation-radiation of heat waves. Radiation is the most common form of heat associated with fire spread to exposures

principles of combustion cont5
Principles of Combustion Cont.
  • Fire resistance-is defined as the ability of a structural assembly to maintain its load-bearing ability under fire conditions.
  • Fire-resistive rating-is the period of time that the assembly will perform satisfactorily when exposed to the standard test fire.
  • A critical factor in overall building fire safety is the combustibility of the materials used for the interior finish.
principles of combustion cont6
Principles of Combustion Cont.
  • The most widely used and recognized test for determining the surface burning characteristics of interior finishes is the Steiner Tunnel Test.
  • Fire Load-is defined as the maximum heat that can be produced if all the combustible materials in a given area burn.
  • A Fire Wall-is a wall with a specified degree of fire resistance that is designed to prevent the spread of fire within a structure or between structures.
principles of combustion cont7
Principles of Combustion Cont.
  • Fire doors-are doors within a fire wall. They must be labeled as such. The labels are commonly found on the edge of the door.
  • A fire door assembly includes the door, the door frame, the door closing and latching hardware, and other accessories.
  • Smoke and heat vents-are for the removal of smoke, heat, and toxic gases produced in a fire situation. They are frequently the determining factor in successful fire control operations.
principles of combustion cont8
Principles of Combustion Cont.
  • A Fire damper-is a device that automatically interrupts air flow through all or part of an air handling system.
  • A Smoke damper- is a device that restricts the passage of smoke in an air handling system.
  • Flammable Decorations-a common fire protection consideration encountered by fire inspectors is the issue of flammable decorations in a particular occupancy.
principles of combustion cont9
Principles of Combustion Cont.
  • Permanent decorations are typically found in places such as churches, nightclubs, restaurants, and theaters.
  • Temporary decorations are commonly found in stores, schools, and college fraternity and sorority houses.
  • Major fires directly related to improper decorations-Beverly Hills Supper Club, Coconut Grove Nightclub
principles of combustion cont10
Principles of Combustion Cont.
  • If the occupant wishes to use a decorative material that is inherently flammable, such as wood, cardboard, cloth, straw, etc. he should be required by the code used in that jurisdiction to use material that has been appropriately treated to be fire retardant.
  • There are four basic methods for making a material fire retardant-chemical changes, impregnation, pressure impregnation, coating
principles of combustion cont11
Principles of Combustion Cont.
  • If there is any question about the flammability of a material encountered by the fire inspector, a Field Test may be performed to determine if an immediate hazard exists.
fire hazard recognition
Fire Hazard Recognition
  • Historically, electricity has always been a common cause of fires
  • Most electrical fires are caused by either arcs or overheating
  • Electricity involves the transfer or movement of electrons between atoms
  • An electrical flow is measured by quantity, pressure, and resistance
fire hazard recognition cont
Fire Hazard Recognition Cont.
  • The quantity of electricity is expressed in terms of amperes (amps)
  • Electrical pressure is termed voltage (volts)
  • Resistance in an electrical circuit is ohms
  • Four common causes of electrical fires are:
  • a. old or worn electrical equipment
  • b. improper use of electrical equipment
  • c. defective electrical installations
  • d. accidental causes
fire hazard recognition cont1
Fire Hazard Recognition Cont.
  • Static electricity refers to the presence of a nonflowing electrical charge that may develop on almost any surface
occupancy classifications
OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATIONS
  • Two of the most basic pieces of information that a Fire Inspector must know when preparing to inspect a building are:

1. How it is constructed

2. What is it used for

occupancy classifications cont
OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATIONS (CONT)
  • The Fire Inspector must have a thorough understanding of the construction and occupancy classifications so that he will apply the proper code requirements to the building being inspected
occupancy classification cont
OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION (cont)
  • Occupancy classification can be defined as the use to which owners or tenants put all or a portion of a building
board of coordination of model codes bcmc
BOARD OF COORDINATION OF MODEL CODES (BCMC)
  • A group comprised of three of the four model codes for consistency in occupancy classifications
nfpa 101 life safety code
NFPA 101, LIFE SAFETY CODE
  • NFPA 101 contains nine basic occupancy classifications that structures may fall under. They are:
  • Places of Assembly
  • Educational Occupancies
  • Health Care Occupancies
  • Detention and Correctional
  • Residential Occupancies
  • Mercantile Occupancies
  • Business Occupancies
  • Industrial Occupancies
  • Storage Occupancies
places of assembly
PLACES OF ASSEMBLY
  • Class A-Facilities capable of handling 1000 persons or more
  • Class B-Facilities capable of handling 300 to 1000 persons
  • Class C- Facilities capable of handling 50 to 300 persons
places of assembly cont
PLACES OF ASSEMBLY (cont)

Examples of places of Assembly

  • Auditoriums
  • Libraries
  • Bowling Alleys
  • Passenger stations (bus, train, airports)
  • Restaurants
  • Dance Halls
  • Theaters
  • College/University classrooms
educational occupancies
EDUCATIONAL OCCUPANCIES
  • Include all buildings used for educational purposes up through the 12th grade by six or more persons, four hours per day or more than twelve hours per week
health care occupancies
HEALTH CARE OCCUPANCIES
  • Included in this classification are hospitals, nursing homes, residential custodial care facilities, and ambulatory health care facilities
detention and correctional occupancies
DETENTION AND CORRECTIONAL OCCUPANCIES
  • Provides sleeping facilities for four or more residents and are occupied by persons who are generally prevented from protecting themselves because of security measures not under their control
  • Jails and prisons
  • Detention centers
  • Adult and juvenile substance abuse centers
  • Juvenile detention and training facilities
residential occupancies
RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCIES
  • Sleeping accommodations are provided for normal residential purposes and include all buildings that are designed to provide sleeping accommodations
  • Hotel
  • Apartments
  • Dormitories
  • Lodging and rooming facilities
  • Board and care facilities
  • Single and two family dwellings
mercantile occupancies
MERCANTILE OCCUPANCIES
  • Include stores, markets, and other rooms, buildings, or structures used to display and sell merchandise
  • Supermarkets
  • Department stores
  • Pharmacies
  • Shopping centers
business occupancies
BUSINESS OCCUPANCIES
  • Used for transacting business (other than those covered under mercantile occupancies), for keeping accounts and records, or other similar purposes
  • Doctor’s and dentist’s office
  • General and government offices
  • City Hall, Courthouses
  • College classroom buildings with rooms for less than 50 people
  • Instructional laboratories
storage occupancies
STORAGE OCCUPANCIES
  • Include warehouses, mini-storage facilities, cold storage warehouses, freight terminals, truck and marine terminals, bulk petroleum storage facilities, parking garages, and barns
mixed occupancies
MIXED OCCUPANCIES
  • Buildings that have two or more very different types of operations within them
  • The most restrictive life safety requirements of the occupancies involved will be enforced in these situations
  • High school with an auditorium
  • Large commercial printing operation that has bulk paper storage
industrial occupancies
INDUSTRIAL OCCUPANCIES
  • Include factories making products of all kinds and properties devoted to such operations as processing, assembly, mixing, packaging, finishing, decorating, and repairing
  • All factories, Dry-cleaning plants
  • Food-processing plants
  • Power plants, refineries, saw mills, telephone exchanges, aircraft hangars
means of egress
MEANS OF EGRESS
  • The Life Safety Code and the three model building codes all define a means of egress as a

“CONTINUOUS AND UNOBSTRUCTED WAY OF EXIT TRAVEL FROM ANY POINT IN A BUILDING TO A PUBLIC WAY”

means of egress cont
MEANS OF EGRESS (cont)
  • A public way is a street, alley, or similar parcel of land essentially open to the outside and which is used by the public
  • All the codes specify that a public way should have a width and height of at least ten (10) feet
means of egress components
MEANS OF EGRESS COMPONENTS
  • A means of egress consists of three distinct components:

1. Exit Access

2. Exit

3. Exit discharge

means of egress components cont
MEANS OF EGRESS COMPONENTS (cont)
  • The exit access is that means of egress that leads to the exit

1. Hallways

2. Corridors

3. Aisles

means of egress components cont1
MEANS OF EGRESS COMPONENTS (cont)
  • The exit is the portion of a means of egress that is separated from the area of the building from which escape is to be made by walls, floors, doors, or other means that provide the protected path necessary for the occupants to proceed with reasonable safety to the exterior of the building

1. Doors

2. Interior and exterior stairs or ramps

means of egress components cont2
MEANS OF EGRESS COMPONENTS (cont)
  • The exit discharge is that portion of a means of egress that is between the end of an exit and a public way

1. Alley

2. Street

occupant load
OCCUPANT LOAD
  • The occupant load is the total number of persons who may occupy a building or portion thereof at any one time
  • The occupant load for a building or room should be established during the plans review process
  • The primary method for determining occupant load is the same for all the model codes
occupant load cont
OCCUPANT LOAD (cont)
  • The occupant load is determined by dividing the area of the building by the maximum floor area allowance per occupant or fixed seat (occupant load factor)
  • The occupant load factor varies with each occupancy type
fire load
FIRE LOAD
  • Fire load is defined as the maximum heat that can be produced if all the combustible materials in a given area burn
  • In a normal building, the fire load is calculated for the following:

1. Structural components

2. Interior finish/floor finish

3. Combustible contents

fire load cont
FIRE LOAD (cont)
  • Historically, fire loading characteristics have been based on a system that was developed by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS)
common causes of fire
COMMON CAUSES OF FIRE
  • Housekeeping Practices

1. Does the occupant use ash trays for smoking

2. Are lighters and matches kept out of the reach of children

3. Are open flame items (candles) used safely

4. Are exhaust and dryer vents cleaned regularly of lint

electrical sources of ignition
ELECTRICAL SOURCES OF IGNITION
  • Old, frayed, or exposed wiring
  • Improperly installed electrical conductors
  • Unprotected light bulbs
  • Exhaust fans encrusted with dust and dirt
open burning
OPEN BURNING
  • Trash in piles or barrels
  • Piles of leaves
  • Bonfires and campfires
  • Prescribed burns of wildland or agricultural land
open burning cont
OPEN BURNING (cont)
  • Many local municipalities as well as some county and state governments, enact regulations to control open burning within their jurisdictions

1. Occupant shall obtain a burn permit

2. Fire Inspector must visit the site prior to burning

open burning cont1
OPEN BURNING (cont)
  • Some guidelines for open burning

1. Fires shall be at least 50 feet from any structure

2. Fires in approved burn containers-25 feet from a structure

3. Fire extinguisher or garden hose shall be present

4. The burn shall be attended until completion of the fire

5. Fires only allowed when wind conditions are light

slide85
HEAT
  • For our discussion of fire and its behavior, the three most common sources of heat that result in the ignition of a fuel are

1. Chemical Energy

2. Electrical Energy

3. Mechanical Energy

  • Chemical heat energy is the most common source of heat in combustion reactions
chemical heat energy
CHEMICAL HEAT ENERGY
  • Chemical heat energy-when any combustible is in contact with oxygen, oxidation occurs. The process almost always results in the production of heat. The heat generated when a common match burns is an example of chemical heat energy
electrical heat energy
ELECTRICAL HEAT ENERGY
  • Electrical heating can occur in several ways, including the following:

1. Current flow through a resistance

2. Overcurrent or overload

3. Arcing

4. Sparking

mechanical heat energy
MECHANICAL HEAT ENERGY
  • Mechanical Heat Energy-is generated by friction and compression.

1. Heat of friction is created by the movement of two surfaces against each other.

2. Heat of compression is generated when a gas is compressed.

fuel hazards
FUEL HAZARDS
  • Some common fuel hazards include:

1. Ordinary combustibles such as wood, cloth, or paper

2. Flammable and combustible gases such as natural gas, LPG, and CNG

3. Flammable and combustible liquids such as gasoline, oils, lacquers, or alcohol

4. Chemicals such as nitrates, oxides, or chlorates

fuel hazards cont
FUEL HAZARDS (cont)

5. Dusts such as grain, wood, metal, or coal

6. Metals such as magnesium, sodium, or potassium

7. Plastics, resins, and cellulose

types of hazards
TYPES OF HAZARDS
  • Common Fire Hazards
  • Personal Fire Hazards
  • Special Fire Hazards
  • Target Hazards
common fire hazards
COMMON FIRE HAZARDS
  • A common fire hazard is a condition that is prevalent in almost all occupancies and encourages a fire to start
common fire hazards cont
COMMON FIRE HAZARDS (cont)
  • Poor housekeeping and improper storage of packing materials and other combustibles
  • Defective or improperly used heating, lighting, or power equipment
  • Improper disposal of floor cleaning compounds
  • Misuse of fumigation substances and flammable or combustible liquids
personal fire hazards
PERSONAL FIRE HAZARDS
  • Personal fire hazards refer to those common hazards caused by the unsafe acts of individuals
special fire hazards
SPECIAL FIRE HAZARDS
  • A Special fire hazard is one that arises as a result of the processes or operations that are characteristics of the individual occupancy
  • Commercial, manufacturing, and public-assembly occupancies each have their own particular hazards
target hazards
TARGET HAZARDS
  • A target hazard is viewed as a facility in which there is a great potential likelihood of life or property loss from a fire.

1. Lumberyards

2. Bulk oil storage facilities

3. Area shopping centers

4. Hospitals, theaters, nursing homes

5. Schools, rows of frame tenements

storage of flammable and combustible liquids
STORAGE OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
  • Standards and specifications concerning proper storage practices are set forth by such organizations as the American Petroleum Institute (API), the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (UL) and model building or fire codes.
types of storage receptacles
TYPES OF STORAGE RECEPTACLES
  • Containers have a storage capacity of 60 gallons or less
  • Portable tanks are larger than 60 gallons and are not intended for a fixed installation
  • Storage tank refers to a vessel greater than 60 gallons and in a fixed location
storage tanks
STORAGE TANKS
  • There are three basic classifications of storage tanks:

1. Aboveground

2. Underground

3. Those located inside buildings

aboveground storage tanks
ABOVEGROUND STORAGE TANKS
  • Should be constructed of steel or concrete
  • Should be on sturdy foundation with adequate supports
  • The spacing between tanks should be at least 3 feet
  • Class 1, Class 11, or Class 111A, the distances between the tanks must be at least one-sixth the sum of their diameters
  • For unstable liquids-half the sum of their diameters
aboveground tanks cont
ABOVEGROUND TANKS (cont)
  • In addition to normal venting, most aboveground tanks require emergency venting to prevent a BLEVE
  • Vents located near buildings or public places must be 12 feet from the ground
  • All aboveground tanks must have a pressure relief device of some sort
aboveground tanks cont1
ABOVEGROUND TANKS (cont)
  • All tanks storing Class 1, 11, or 111A liquids must have dikes or some form of drainage
  • The walls of the dike should be liquid-tight and constructed of steel, concrete, solid masonry, or earth
  • The dike should be at least 3 feet tall and 2 feet wide at the top
underground storage tanks
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS
  • From a fire protection standpoint, underground tank storage is perhaps the safest form of storage for flammable and combustible liquids
  • This type of storage is most commonly found in bulk and retail fuel storage facilities, car rental agencies, and truck depots
underground storage tanks cont
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (cont)
  • The tanks may be made of metal, fiberglass, unlined concrete
  • Underground tanks that are not subject to vehicular traffic must be covered with at least 2 feet of earth, or at least one foot of earth plus 4 inches of reinforced concrete
  • If underground tanks are likely to have vehicles passing over them-at least 3 feet of earth
underground tanks cont
UNDERGROUND TANKS (cont)
  • Perhaps the simplest and most economical method of detecting leaks is to be sure that inventory is stringently controlled
  • Tanks and piping should be constructed of the same materials to prevent electrolytic corrosion
  • Abandoned tanks can be safeguarded in one of two ways-removing them from the ground, inerting (left in ground with inert material)
inside storage tanks
INSIDE STORAGE TANKS
  • The most common types of tanks found inside buildings are those used to store fuel oil and drain or waste oil
  • Tanks with amounts greater than 660 gallons must be placed in a fire-resistant room or enclosure so that they are isolated from the rest of the building
inside tanks cont
INSIDE TANKS (cont)
  • Tanks used to store flammable or combustible liquids inside a building have the same wall thickness and design requirements as tanks used for outside storage
  • Inside tanks must have ventilation equipment to remove flammable vapors from within the enclosure
container and portable tank storage
CONTAINER AND PORTABLE TANK STORAGE
  • The most common form of flammable and combustible liquid storage vessels encountered are containers and portable tanks
  • Containers come in several forms including glass containers, metal drums, safety cans, and polyethylene containers
  • Safety cans are one of the safest types of storage containers and should be UL or FM approved
container and portable tank storage cont
CONTAINER AND PORTABLE TANK STORAGE (cont.)
  • The Inspector will most often encounter flammable or combustible liquids stored in containers that are 5 gallons or less
  • The maximum allowable size for approved safety cans is 5 gallons
  • Safety cans use self-closing lids with vapor seals and contain a flame arrester in the dispenser opening
storage cont
STORAGE (cont.)
  • Dwelling occupancies should not store more than 25 gallon of Class 1 or Class 11 liquids, or 60 gallons of Class 111 A liquids
  • Assembly occupancies and buildings containing more than three dwelling units may store no more than 10 gallons of Class 1 or Class 11 liquids, or 60 gallons of Class 111A liquids
storage cont1
STORAGE (cont.)
  • Office, educational, and health care occupancies should store only the amount of liquids needed for operation, maintenance, demonstrations, or treatment
  • Mercantile occupancies and retail stores should store no more than the amount needed for displays or operating purposes
storage cabinets
STORAGE CABINETS
  • Small quantities of flammable or combustible liquids in normal operating areas should be stored in approved storage cabinets
  • The cabinet is not required to be vented for fire protection purposes
storage rooms
STORAGE ROOMS
  • Rooms containing flammable liquids should have raised sills at the doors
  • Any opening must have approved, self-closing fire doors
  • Inside storage rooms must have some form of ventilation, either gravity or mechanical
  • A clear aisle approximately 3 feet wide must be maintained at all times
storage rooms cont
STORAGE ROOMS (cont.)
  • If class 1 liquids are being dispensed in a room, the room must have mechanical ventilation
outside container storage
OUTSIDE CONTAINER STORAGE
  • Flammable and combustible liquids are often stored outside in portable containers such as DRUMS
  • The storage area must have a fence or security guard to protect it against vandalism
  • No opening is permitted within 10 feet of the storage area
outside container storage cont
OUTSIDE CONTAINER STORAGE (cont.)
  • Fire Inspectors should allow only containers that have been approved for the liquids that are placed in them
  • The containers should have proper venting
  • Quantities of more than 1,100 gallons may not be located adjacent to buildings
  • Local Fire or Building codes usually contain tables giving the required spacing distances