Employee Attitudes and Their Effects By Burak Cenk Adalan 064553
Chapter Objectives • The Nature of Attitudes and Job Satisfaction • The Relationship between Performance and Satisfaction • Job Involvement and Organization Commitment • Some Positive and Negative Effects of Employee Attitudes • Organizational Citizenship Behaviors • Benefits of Studying Employee Attitudes • Design and Use of Job Satisfaction Surveys
The Nature of Attitudes • Attitudes are the feelings and beliefs that largely determine how employees will perceive their environment , commit themselves to intended actions and ultimately behave. • Attitudes form a mental set that affects how we view something else ,much as a window provides a framework for our view into or out of a building.
Job Satisfaction • Job satisfaction: is a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings and emotions with which employees view their work.Job satisfaction is an affective attitude a feeling of relative like or dislike toward something. • Individual focus : Job satisfaction typically refers to the attitudes of a single employee but there’s an important thing like moral, it is for all group satisfaction. • Stability of a Job Satisfaction : Attitudes are generally acquired over a long period of time.Similarly job satisfaction or dissatisfaction emerges as an employee gains more and more information about the workplace.
Job Satisfaction • Environmental Impact: Job satisfaction is a one part of life satisfaction.The nature of a worker’s environment off the job indirectly influences his or her feelings on the job.Similarly , since a job is an important part of a life for many workers job satisfaction infuluence general life satisfaciton. Job Familiy LIFE Leisure Politics Religion
Job Involvement • In addition to job satisfaction, three other distinct but related , employee attitudes are important to many employees. Job Involvement is the degree to which employees immerse themselves in their jobs, invest time and energy in them and view work as a central part of their overall lives.
Organization Commitment • Organizational commitment or employee loyalty is the degree to which an employee identifies with the organization and wants to continue actively participating in it. • Work Moods: Employees also have feelings about thier jobs thatare highly dynamic :they can change within a day hour or minute. These variable attitutes toward their jobs are called Work Moods.
Effects of Employee Attitude • Attitudes are reasonably good predictors of behaviors. They provide clues to an employee’s behavioral intentions or inclinations to act in a certain way.Positive jobs attitudes help predict constructive behaviors: negative job attitudes help predict undesirable behaivors. • Employee Performance: Satisfied workers actually may be high , average , or even low producers and they will tend to continue the level of performance that previously brought them satisfaction.
Effects of Employee Attitudes • Turnover: As might be expected higher job satisfaction is associated with lower employee turnover , which is the proportion of employees leaving an organization during a given time period. The Performance Satisfaction –Effort Loop Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction Performance Rewards Economic Sociological Psychological Perception of equilty rewards Fair Unfair Greater of lesser Commitment Greater or lesser effort Turnover Absenteeism Tardiness Theft Violence
Turnover and Absences Relationship of job satisfaction to turnover and absences Figure High Turnover Absences Low High Turnover and Absences
Absences and Tardiness • Emplotees who have low job satisfaction tend to be absent more often.The connection is not always sharp , for couple of reasons. • Theft:Some employees steal products.Others use company services without any authorization.These kind of things are called theft. • Violence:One of the most extreme consequences of employee dissatisfaciton is exhibited through violence.This violence source can be include customers or strangers
Studying Job Satisfaction • Management needs information on employee job satisfaction in order to make sound decsions , both in preventing and solving employee problems. • Benefits of job Satisfaction Studies: If job satisfaction studies are properly planned and administered they will usually produce a number of important benefits both general and specific. • Monitoring Attitudes: One benifit of attitude studies is that they give management an indication of general levels of satisfaction in a company. • Additional Benefits: Surveys have many other benefits as well.The flow of communication in all directions is improved as people plan the survey.,take it and discuss it’s results.
Use of Existing Job Satisfaction Information Examples of job satisfaction-related information avaiable in organization Medical records Labor Turnover Sources Of Information Exit interviews Waste and scrap repots Training records Quality records
Survey Design and Followup • General managers need to identify a purpose for attitudes assessment,obtain top management add union support and then develop the measurement instrument.
Identify reason for survey Major steps in a Systemyic approach To conducting survey Obtain management commitment Develop survey instrument Administer survey Tabulate results Analyze results Provide feedback to participants Implement action plan Monitoring results
Survey Design and Followup • Closed -End Questions: These present a choice of answers in such a way that employees simply select and mark anwsers and these answers show their feelings. • Opened –End Questions:Present a variety of topics but let employees answer in their own words.
Critical Issues • Reliability: Is the capacity of a survey instrument to produce consistent result ,regardless of who administers it. • Validity: In addition to reliability , studies of job satisfaction need validity or capacity to meansure what they claim to meansure. • Social Desirability: The tendency of employees to have social desirability bias that’s importantance of challenge in their job.
Using Survey Information • Communicating the Results: The first step in using job satisfaction information is to communicate it to all managers so that they can understand it and prepare to use it. • Comparative Data: In larger organizations comparisons among departments are an effective wat to encourage managers to sit up and take note of satisfaction data.
Using Survey Information • Employee Comments: Employee coments are very useful and this information often makes a greater impression on management that scores statistics and charts do. • Feedback to Employees: When corrective action is taken as the result of a survey details of what was learned and what was done should be shared with employees as soons as possible.
Changing Employee Attitudes • Includeing attitude shifts is not always easy to but potential gains can make it worth while to try.If management desires to change employee attitudes in a more favorable direction there are many routes to pursue. • Sometimes it’s advisable to get employee to change their behavior first and let the desired attitudes shift follow later.