Europe Test Review for Tuesday 11/29Study - Ch 12, 13, 14 and class notes
Ireland • North Atlantic Drift • Peat • Irish Potato famine • Northern Ireland conflict
North Atlantic Drift • A current of warm water from the tropics that makes Western Europe have a mild rainy climate.
Peat • Because Ireland lacks energy sources, the Irish burn peat as a source of fuel. Peat is partially decayed plant matter found in bogs.
Potato Famine • The Great Hunger reduced the population of Ireland by 25 percent between 1845 and 1852. It resulted in a mass migration of Irish people to the United States.
Northern Ireland conflict Half of Northern Ireland’s population is Protestant but 99% of the Republic of Ireland’s population is Catholic. Catholics in Northern Ireland want to be one country with the rest of Ireland, but the UK doesn’t want to give up.
Iceland • Mid-Atlantic Ridge
United Kingdom • Feudalism • Magna Carta • Henry VIII English Reformation • Parliament • English Bill of Rights • Industrial Revolution • British Empire
Feudalism • Political System in which powerful lords owned most of the land. Generic plan of a mediaeval manor; open-field strip farming, some enclosures, triennial crop rotation, demesne and manse, common woodland, pasturage and meadow
Magna Carta • Historic document that limited the power of the English King signed in 1215. An Englishcharter originally issued in 1215. Magna Carta was the most significant early influence on the extensive historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law today.
Henry VIII (8th) Henry VIII is famous for having been married six times. He wielded perhaps the most formidable power of any English monarch and brought about the English Reformation. Many significant pieces of legislation were enacted during Henry VIII's reign. They included the several Acts which severed the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established the king as the supreme head of the Church in England.
Parliament • England's representative lawmaking body whose members are elected or appointed (in some cases, they inherit the position)
English Bill of Rights 1689 • It lays down limits on the powers of sovereign and sets out the rights of Parliament and rules for freedom of speech in Parliament, the requirement to regular elections to Parliament and the right to petition the monarch without fear of retribution.
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution which began in Britain marked a major turning point in human social history. Manual labor based economies began to be replaced by ones dominated by industry and the manufacture of machinery.
British Empire • “the sun never set’s on the British Empire” • Thanks to the Royal navy, England ruled & controlled ¼ of the worlds population. This colonial rule spread English culture & laws to the rest of the world.
Low Countries • Benelux • Polder • Ijsselmeer
France • French Revolution • Euro • European Union
Germany • Gutenberg Printing Press • Reformation • Nationalism • Anti-Semitism • Holocaust • Berlin Wall • Rhine River
Martin Luther • Translated bible into German to make it more accessible to common people • Started the reformation and the protestant religion
Nationalism • The belief that people should be loyal to their nation, the people with whom they share land, culture, and history . German speaking people finally united during the begging of the 1900’s.
Holocaust • A program of mass murder of European Jews and other minorities.
Berlin Wall • Wall dividing eastern and western Berlin • The east was allied with the communist in Russia the west was allied with noncommunist Europe
Italy • Republic • Aqueduct • Crusades • Black Death • Renaissance
Republic A government in which citizens elect representatives to rule in their name.
Spain • Spanish Armada • Iberian Peninsula
Greece • City-States • Parthenon
City-StateIs a political unit made up of a city and its surrounding lands.
Nordic Countries • Scandinavian Peninsula • Fjords
Eastern Europe • Cultural Crossroads • Satellite nation • Balkanization • Ethnic Cleansing • Market Economy
Cultural Crossroads • A place where various cultures cross paths
Satellite nations • Nations dominated by another country
Balkanization • The process of a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units