Sustainable solid waste management in developing countries
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Sustainable Solid Waste Management In Developing Countries. Mrs Almitra H Patel, Member Supreme Court Committee for Solid Waste Management [email protected] WASTE MANAGEMENT: THEN & NOW. Since ancient times, domestic wastes have been composted for return to the soil.

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Sustainable solid waste management in developing countries l.jpg
Sustainable Solid Waste Management In Developing Countries

Mrs Almitra H Patel, Member

Supreme Court Committee for Solid Waste Management

[email protected]


Waste management then now l.jpg
WASTE MANAGEMENT: THEN & NOW Countries

Since ancient times, domestic wastes have been composted for return to the soil.

Till the 1940s, farmers brought produce

to towns, took urban organics to fields.

With cities growing, subsidies for urea in the 1960s and thin plastics appearing, urban waste lost its value to farmers.


Now waste is a problem l.jpg
NOW WASTE IS A PROBLEM Countries

Urban waste is now dumped just beyond

city limits on vacant land in villages or all

along highways, canals, in lowlying land.

It breeds flies, mosquitoes, rats. Dogs

thrive on waste heaps and form hunting

packs at night, attacking village livestock.

Villagers feel helpless against such officially sanctioned pollution.


1994 surat plague was a wake up call l.jpg
1994: SURAT PLAGUE CountriesWAS A WAKE-UP CALL

’94 : 1st Clean India Campaign by Capt JS Velu & me: 30 cities in 30 days via Surat

’95: 2nd Clean India Campaign, 60 new cities

OPEN DUMPING OUTSIDE EVERY CITY

’96: PIL No 888/96 against all States for hygienic eco-friendly waste managemt.

’99 : Supreme Court Committee Report.


1999 report to supreme court guiding principles l.jpg
1999 REPORT TO SUPREME COURT: GUIDING PRINCIPLES Countries

‘Clean Up and Flourish or Pile Up and Perish’

‘A city is only as clean as its dirtiest areas’

‘The best way to keep streets clean

is not to dirty them in the first place.

Aim for cities without street bins.’

2000: Municipal Solid Waste (Mgmt & Handling) Rules. COPIES AVAILABLE.


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POLICY IN A NUTSHELL Countries

Keep “wet” & “dry” wastes separately

Doorstep collection of “wet” waste, to

Compost all bio - degradables.

Leave Recyclables to the informal sector.

Landfill only Compost Rejects & inerts.

Waste Mimimisation is vital.


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MORE GUIDELINES Countries

Handle waste once only ! (Collect in mobile bins or tipper vehicle)

Separate collection of inerts (road dust, drain silt, debris)

No Burning of Waste or Leaves

Bio-Med Waste: follow its Rules.

S. Ct: No Pesticide on Wastes


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INDIA’S BEST PRACTICES Countries

Waste Separation at Source succeeds where citizens see it transported separately also, e.g. in Suryapet.

Doorstep Collection keeps streets and roadside drains much cleaner.

Separate collection timings for inerts: drain silt, debris lots, road diggings.

Weekly collection of garden waste.




Market waste is easy to vermi compost l.jpg
MARKET WASTE IS EASY CountriesTO VERMI - COMPOST



Thin film plastics are an expensive problem at centralised compost plants l.jpg
THIN - FILM PLASTICS ARE SORTING SPACES AN EXPENSIVE PROBLEM AT CENTRALISED COMPOST PLANTS


Shredded plastics make excellent bitumen roads by a patented process l.jpg
SHREDDED PLASTICS MAKE EXCELLENT BITUMEN ROADS BY A PATENTED PROCESS

Collect through schools:

1 free pencil for 1 kg plastic;

Sell pooled class collection for Eco Club activities.

Take Back policies needed.


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‘RECYCLABLE’ IS MEANINGLESS PATENTED PROCESSUNLESS RECYCLING IS ACTUALLY DONE. INDIA HAS A HUGE P E T PROBLEM1 PVC bottle can ruin a batch of 10,000 PET Ban rigid PVC packaging for effective PET recycling and insist on Bottle Take - Back.


Waste stabilising l.jpg
WASTE STABILISING PATENTED PROCESS

IS THE FIRST STEP IN COMPOSTING

AND CAN START AT ONCE

Unload waste in wind-rows, spray with bio-cultures

turn weekly, 1-4 times. Dark humus forms in 2 months.

Even unsieved, this can be spread to cover old waste

and grow flowers and non food crops, or peelable

foods like maize or banana.

Root crops take up heavy metals.

This ‘urban agriculture’ will control fires and curb

encroachments on unused dumps.


Composting is the best way to recycle organics l.jpg
COMPOSTING IS THE BEST WAY TO RECYCLE ORGANICS PATENTED PROCESS

Spray biocultures, then

shape heaps into windrows.

Turn weekly or at least once.


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CITY COMPOST + CHEMICAL FERTILISERS WORK WONDERS: PATENTED PROCESSReduce Chem. Fert 50%, buy compost with savings. Drought-proofing, less waterings, 15-25% higher yields in all crops tried.This is paddy 6 weeks after transplanting.


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CITY COMPOST CAN RESTORE TSUNAMI HIT SALINE SOILS. PATENTED PROCESSRaised Beds 1m high, 10 m wide, upto 10 km from sea, water table 2m or less.Or 1.5m broad beds & furrows, inland.See www.excelind.com for Dholera CD


Don t think of waste to energy from urban waste in india l.jpg
DON’T PATENTED PROCESSTHINK OF WASTE TO ENERGY FROM URBAN WASTE IN INDIA !

Average 45% inerts because of faulty collection practices everywhere.

Only 7% combustibles after rag - picking.

LOW calorific value, 800-1200 kcal/kg.

Works only at micro scale, on campuses

where biogas is used for heating, e.g. in

kitchen for 40,000 at BEL factory.


Long history of many wte failures l.jpg
LONG HISTORY OF MANY WTE FAILURES: PATENTED PROCESS

1980s: Delhi Incinerator ran only 6 days!

2004: Biometh promoters “ran away”

after investing US$ 18.7 million for 5MW,

generating only 0.5 MW over past year.

17 MoUs, 15 withdrew after 3 to 7 yr wait.

2 RDF “successes” actually run on 70 %

to 90 % paddy husk, on city’s free land

meant for urban waste management !


Cost of wte vs compost l.jpg
COST OF WTE vs COMPOST : PATENTED PROCESS

For processing 300 tons/day waste:

Compost US $ 1 million, all successful.

Biometh US $ 18.6 million, a failure.

For installing 1 MW capacity power:

Thermal or Hydel US $ 1 million

WTE (RDF,biometh,burn,) US $1.8 to 3.8 million.

Foreign lobby drives WTE in India, SAARC.


Business climate for swm l.jpg
BUSINESS CLIMATE FOR SWM PATENTED PROCESS

US $ 65 Billion needed for urban infra -structure over next 10 years: power, roads, water supply, sanitation, SWM.

Greater autonomy given to cities.

Private sector being encouraged.

Municipal Development Funds or Bonds.

400 joint ventures in environment sector.

Growth driven by courts + public demand.


Business opportunities l.jpg
BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES PATENTED PROCESS

MINI solutions for secondary transport, like 3 or 4 wheel small tippers.

LOW cost windrow turning equipment.

Waste Sanitising & Composting services.

Compost Marketing, tie-ups with fertiliser firms, or for greening mining overburdens.

LOW cost landfills, bentonite quilt liners.

SIMPLE, DECENTRALISED, CLEAN Recycling Technologies for Tyres, PET, multifilms, tube-lights, batteries, e-waste.


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