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Bismarck . Domestic Policy for the Second German Reich . Government of the Second Reich . Federal system of government German states still had political power over their state and each state maintain its own government No true imperial cabinet The Prime Minister = only imperial minister

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bismarck

Bismarck

Domestic Policy for the Second German Reich

government of the second reich
Government of the Second Reich
  • Federal system of government
    • German states still had political power over their state and each state maintain its own government
  • No true imperial cabinet
    • The Prime Minister = only imperial minister
    • Other ministerial posts often held by the same person with similar position within the Prussian govt.
    • Ministerial Reich departments will develop as the needs for the empire increase
  • Much overlap between the government of Prussia and the new government of Germany
slide3

National currency – the Reichsmark – based on the gold standard

  • National bank
  • National legal code and court system
slide4

The Kaiser = the emperor of Germany

    • King of Prussia – largest state in the new German union
    • Right to appoint all imperial officials
    • Responsible for German foreign policy
    • Commander of the German Army
    • Could call or dissolve the German Parliament
    • Could initiate domestic policy through the chancellor
slide5

The Chancellor

    • Appointed by the Kaiser and only responsible to the Kaiser
    • Virtually ruled the new German state
slide6

The Bundesrat

    • Upper House of the German Parliament
  • Members nominated by the governments of the German states
  • Number of seats determined by the population of the German state
    • Dominated by Prussia = largest state – most seats
  • Had the power to initiate legislation
slide7

The Reichstag

    • Lower House of the German Parliament
  • 397 members elected by universal male suffrage
  • Power to initiate legislation – had to be approved by the Bundesrat
  • Power to veto legislation passed by the Bundesrat
  • Needed to approve new appropriations bills – especially those for the army and navy
the kulturkampf
The Kulturkampf
  • “The Cultural Struggle”
  • Represents Bismarck’s attack on the Roman Catholic Church inside the new German state
  • Southern German states = Catholic
    • Loyalty of Catholic citizens came into question – will they support Germany or the Catholic church
    • Feared possible political alliance with Austria and France = both Catholic
  • Bismarck did NOT have national support for the Kulturkampf
  • Prussia – passed the May Laws of 1873
  • Effort to place the Roman Catholic Church under state control
slide9

Prussia – passed the May Laws of 1873

    • Effort to place the Roman Catholic Church under state control
    • Laws restricted Catholic worship and Catholic education
    • Catholic bishops and clergy were arrested or expelled from Germany
    • Laws restricting Catholic publications
  • Resulted in the jailing of numerous Catholic priests – often supported by members of their congregation
  • Catholics created the Center Party to represent Catholic political interests
    • Developed into strong oppositional party in the Reichstag
slide10

Kulturkampf FAILED

  • Bismarck decided to end the Kulturkampf in 1878
  • Negotiated with Pope Leo XIII (new pope) to reestablish relations with the Vatican and German Catholic population
  • Needed political support of the Center Party against the Liberal Party
the anti socialist campaign
The Anti-Socialist Campaign
  • 1874 – Bismarck clashed with the Reichstag over military expenditures
    • Government wanted a seven year military budget (septennate)
  • Passed with the National Liberals – nationalist values
  • Liberals refuse other national taxes to support the idea of free trade and did not want to give up power over the budget
  • 1875 – Creation of the Social Democratic Party
    • Socialism became more popular with the economic depression of the early 1870s
slide12

Bismarck campaigned for anti-socialist laws (1876/1878)

    • Liberals opposed the legislation – believed the law took rights away from everyone
  • Bismarck dissolved the Reichstag and called for new elections
    • More conservative parliament elected because of Bismarck’s propaganda
  • 1878 – Anti-Socialist law passed
    • Social Democratic party declared illegal
    • Party cannot meet; newspapers shut down
slide13

Anti-Socialist Laws FAIL!

    • Membership of the party increased from 300,000 to 1.5 million between 1878 and 1890
    • Socialist Democratic party increased seats in the Reichstag from 9 to 35.
    • Coincided with industrial development
tariff laws 1879
Tariff Laws (1879)
  • 1873 – Germany entered into economic depression caused by end of speculation boom following the unification of the empire
  • 1879 – Supported the passage of tariffs to protect agriculture and industry
    • Supported by the Center Party, conservative land owners (the Junkers), business/industrial owners
    • Protected industry from foreign competition – esp. Great Britain
    • Protected agriculture from foreign grain imports from US and Russia
    • Move away from free trade philosophy
slide15

Tariffs improved the economy of Germany and allowed for an industrial revolution

    • German industrial production surpassed GB and France
    • European leader in iron, steel, coal production
    • Development of industrial cartels (monopolies)
    • Increase in railroad mileage
    • Increase in merchant marine
  • Industry linked with university research
    • Chemicals industry – fertilizer
state socialism
State Socialism
  • Instituted govt. insurance program for workers – sickness, accident, incapacity in old age.
  • Effort to weaken the power of the Social Democratic Party