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The French Revolution
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  1. The French Revolution Twyla Black Ed639

  2. Age of Revolution Unit First lesson Ninth Grade Social Studies Class

  3. Materials • Computer • LCD Unit • Worksheets

  4. Rationale The French Revolution destroyed the entire structure of royal absolutism and ended the social order based on aristocratic privilege. It set the stage for democratic movements around the world during the next century.

  5. Objectives Explain how France’s class structure contributed to the French Revolution. List the political reformsthe National Assembly adopted for France.

  6. Student Activities Fill in worksheet as we go through lesson. Participate in group activity about how France’s social divisions contributed to the French Revolution.

  7. Causes of the French Revolution

  8. Population Divided Causes of the French Revolution

  9. First Estate Population Divided Causes of the French Revolution

  10. The First Estate was made up of Roman Catholic clergy. There were two levels in The First Estate, the higher clergy and lower clergy. They made up about 1% of the population. The higher clergy owned about 5 to 10% of the land and earned a great deal of money from the taxes of those who worked the land. This money helped fund schools and a aid the poor. It also paid for the grand lifestyles of the higher clergy.

  11. The lower clergy was made up of parish priest who were poor. They had more in common with The Third Estate. They carried on religious duties and ran the school. They resent the higher clergy for their lavish lifestyles.

  12. First Estate Second Estate Population Divided Causes of the French Revolution

  13. The Second Estate consisted of the nobility. They owned about 25% of the land in France and earned money through rent from the peasants who worked the land. They enjoyed many privileges and lived a lavish lifestyle. Some lived in the palace at Versailles and some lived in extravagant homes on the land they owned.

  14. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Causes of the French Revolution

  15. The Third Estate was comprised of peasants, artisans and the bourgeoisie. This was the largest social group but the one with the least political power. The professionals (doctors, lawyers and merchants) of the bourgeoisie lived in the cities and towns. They were educated people and had read Enlightenment works. They believed in freedom and social justice.

  16. The remainder of The Third Estate was made up of peasants and artisans. Some of the artisans were able to live in cities even though they had meager means. The peasants typically lived in rural areas. They owned some land but they also had a great deal of taxes to pay to The First & Second Estates. They worked hard but had no voice in the government.

  17. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Weak Absolute Monarchy Causes of the French Revolution

  18. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Causes of the French Revolution

  19. The young king, Louis the XVI married a 14y/o princess from Austria. Her name was Marie Antoinette. She had a great deal of influence over the king. She was not received well by the French people. It was expected that an heir would be produced quickly but one was not. This was upsetting to the population. She was accused by the population of being sexually immoral. This created a great deal of discord and discomfort for the royal couple.

  20. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions

  21. When Louis XVI took the throne he was very young. The country was in terrible financial condition. His grandfather and father had poor fiscal policies and had created a financial crisis. Young Louis was only 19 y/o and had poor examples to follow.

  22. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions Preferred Personal Pursuits

  23. Due to a physical condition, Louis was unable to consummate his marriage to Marie. This caused the young King a great deal of embarrassment. He chose to pursue activities away from home. This opened the couple up to a great deal of speculation. Since he wasn’t home, he wasn’t able to address the issues of the financial crisis and the discord of the population.

  24. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions Preferred Personal Pursuits Govt. had Large Debt

  25. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions Preferred Personal Pursuits Overly Ambitious Wars Govt. had Large Debt

  26. Since the reign of Louis XIV, France had been involved in many squirmishes with its neighbors. Other European countries were afraid of the consequences should Louis XIV dreams of expansion be realized. They banded together against France. The War of Spanish Succession, in the early 1700’s, drained the French treasury, increased poverty of France, and created opposition to the royalty rules. Louis the XVI was faced will aftermath of this situation.

  27. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions Preferred Personal Pursuits Overly Ambitious Wars Govt. had Large Debt Extravagant spending by Court

  28. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions Preferred Personal Pursuits Overly Ambitious Wars Govt. had Large Debt Need Tax Reform Extravagant spending by Court

  29. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions Preferred Personal Pursuits Overly Ambitious Wars Govt. had Large Debt Need Tax Reform Nobles Against Tax Changes Extravagant spending by Court

  30. After much consideration Louis XVI decided the country was in such dire financial straights that there was no choice but to tax the First and Second Estates. The members of these groups refused to comply. The Estates-General, with representatives of each of the Estates, met to discuss the concerns of the land. It was the hope of the First and Second Estates that they could strengthen their stake in the government and protect their pampered position in the social stratification. The Third Estate had other ideas.

  31. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions Preferred Personal Pursuits Overly Ambitious Wars Peasants & Bourgeoisie Heavily Taxed Govt. had Large Debt Need Tax Reform Nobles Against Tax Changes Extravagant spending by Court

  32. The peasants, artisans and bourgeois supported the First and Second Estates through their tithes to the clergy, feudal dues, fines to the nobles and taxes to the king. The First and Second Estates had no financial responsibilities to the country. Even though The Third Estate provided the most financial support they had virtually no power in the government.

  33. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Revolutionary Ideas Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions Preferred Personal Pursuits Overly Ambitious Wars Peasants & Bourgeoisie Heavily Taxed Govt. had Large Debt Need Tax Reform Nobles Against Tax Changes Extravagant spending by Court

  34. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Revolutionary Ideas Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions No Taxation w/o Representation Preferred Personal Pursuits Overly Ambitious Wars Peasants & Bourgeoisie Heavily Taxed Govt. had Large Debt Need Tax Reform Nobles Against Tax Changes Extravagant spending by Court

  35. Louis XVI had supported the efforts of the American Colonist in their bid for freedom from England. One of the primary demands by the Colonist was “no taxation without representation.” The citizens of France, initially only the Third Estates, created the National Assembly. Representatives of The First and Second Estates join at the direction of the King. He was concerned about only members of the Third Estate writing a new constitution

  36. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Revolutionary Ideas Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions No Taxation w/o Representation Preferred Personal Pursuits Take up arms against Tyranny Overly Ambitious Wars Peasants & Bourgeoisie Heavily Taxed Govt. had Large Debt Need Tax Reform Nobles Against Tax Changes Extravagant spending by Court

  37. The First and Second Estates fought to continue with the current social order. The Third Estate fought for social equality. The debates took to the streets. The King was becoming increasingly ridden with anxiety about the turmoil of his citizens. He called in the military for support.

  38. Many of The French people became increasing agitated. They saw the prison, The Bastille, as representative of the tyrannical government. They attacked The Bastille on July 14, 1789. It is now know as Bastille Day. Which is equivalent to our Independence Day.

  39. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Republic Superior to Monarchy Revolutionary Ideas Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions No Taxation w/o Representation Preferred Personal Pursuits Take up arms against Tyranny Overly Ambitious Wars Peasants & Bourgeoisie Heavily Taxed Govt. had Large Debt Need Tax Reform Nobles Against Tax Changes Extravagant spending by Court

  40. The French citizenry were also impressed by the American Colonies governmental style of a democratic republic. This change sealed King Louis XVI’s fate.

  41. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Age of Enlightenment Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Republic Superior to Monarchy Revolutionary Ideas Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions No Taxation w/o Representation Preferred Personal Pursuits Take up arms against Tyranny Overly Ambitious Wars Peasants & Bourgeoisie Heavily Taxed Govt. had Large Debt Need Tax Reform Nobles Against Tax Changes Extravagant spending by Court

  42. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Appeal to Bourgeoisie Grievances Age of Enlightenment Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Republic Superior to Monarchy Revolutionary Ideas Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions No Taxation w/o Representation Preferred Personal Pursuits Take up arms against Tyranny Overly Ambitious Wars Peasants & Bourgeoisie Heavily Taxed Govt. had Large Debt Need Tax Reform Nobles Against Tax Changes Extravagant spending by Court

  43. The Declaration of the Rights of Man took many of its ideas from the Enlightenment writers such as Locke and Rousseau. They write that all men are created equal and are equal before the law.

  44. Society can Flourish with Free Economy First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Appeal to Bourgeoisie Grievances Age of Enlightenment Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Republic Superior to Monarchy Revolutionary Ideas Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions No Taxation w/o Representation Preferred Personal Pursuits Take up arms against Tyranny Overly Ambitious Wars Peasants & Bourgeoisie Heavily Taxed Govt. had Large Debt Need Tax Reform Nobles Against Tax Changes Extravagant spending by Court

  45. The artisans and people working the land as well as, the bourgeoisie were confident that an open free economy could only be of benefit to the country.

  46. Society can Flourish with Free Economy Challenge Absolute Rule First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Population Divided Appeal to Bourgeoisie Grievances Age of Enlightenment Influenced by Marie Antoinette Weak Absolute Monarchy Republic Superior to Monarchy Revolutionary Ideas Causes of the French Revolution Incapable of strong decisive decisions No Taxation w/o Representation Preferred Personal Pursuits Take up arms against Tyranny Overly Ambitious Wars Peasants & Bourgeoisie Heavily Taxed Govt. had Large Debt Need Tax Reform Nobles Against Tax Changes Extravagant spending by Court

  47. An absolute monarchy had been in place for years. This system was not working for the majority of the population. Even as the absolute leader, Louis XVI supported the efforts of the American Colonist in their demand for a democratic republic. His citizens wanted to follow suit and demanded a drastic change in France’s political system.

  48. Resources for further exploration on the French Revolution on the Internet. www.swil.ocdsb.edu.on.ca/FreRev/mission.html www.historywiz.com/frenchrev.htm www.hightower.com/bastil.htm www.woodberry.org/acad/hist/FRWEB/timeline/timeline.htm www.freespeech.org/republicansf/1798.htm