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Plan for Today: What do we mean by democracy?. Introducing two types of definitions of democratic regimes. Outlining implications of choosing different definitions of democracy. Clarifying some things that democracy is not . Democracy. Demos = people -cracy = “rule”.

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plan for today what do we mean by democracy

Plan for Today:What do we mean by democracy?

Introducing two types of definitions of democratic regimes.

Outlining implications of choosing different definitions of democracy.

Clarifying some things that democracy is not.

democracy
Democracy
  • Demos = people
  • -cracy = “rule”
regime vs state government
“Regime” vs. “State,” “Government”
  • “State”:territorially defined political entity, like “country.”
  • “Government”: collection of particular leaders fulfilling governing positions at any one time.
  • “Regime”: Set of rules & institutions defining political system.
different types of definitions of democracy
Procedural Definitions

Substantive, “Outcome”-focused Definitions

Different types of definitions of democracy

Minimal electoral definitions

More complex procedural definitions

(“liberal democracy”)

Maximalist definitions

procedural definitions
Procedural Definitions
  • Focus on process and rules defining democracy.
  • Most common definitions today in study of democratization.
procedural definitions6
Procedural Definitions

Complex

Minimalist

Democracy = competitive elections

Additional institutions and/ or liberty protections required

minimalist electoral definitions
Minimalist Electoral Definitions
  • Define democracy by process used to make up governing institutions.
  • Require only multi-candidate, competitive elections.
minimalist electoral definitions8
Minimalist Electoral Definitions
  • Joseph Schumpeter’s (1943) definition: “individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the people’s vote.”
  • Also Przeworski, Huntington
the fallacy of electoralism terry karl
“The fallacy of electoralism”(Terry Karl)
  • The belief that elections equal democracy.
electoral democracies
“Electoral democracies”
  • Regimes that have minimal competitive elections, but no other democratic institutions.
more complex procedural definitions
More Complex Procedural Definitions
  • Institutions or guarantees of freedoms, as well as elections, must exist to call regime democratic.
    • E.g. Liberal definitions of democracy.
illiberal democracies fareed zakaria
“Illiberal Democracies”(Fareed Zakaria)
  • Everyone has the right to vote among multiple candidates, but human rights and individual liberties are not well observed.
  • Examples: Russia, other post-Soviet, Nigeria, Venezuela.
complex procedural definitions examples of institutional requirements
Complex Procedural Definitions Examples of Institutional Requirements
  • Checks & balances, separation of powers:legislative, executive, & judicial organs separated.
  • Rule of law:legal rules applied fairly and consistently to all citizens.
  • Guaranteed protection of minorities.
complex procedural definitions examples
Complex Procedural Definitions Examples
  • Robert Dahl’s definition of “Polyarchy”:
    • opposition – contestation through elections.
    • participation – the equal right of all adults to vote and run for office.
  • Includes certain civil liberties, argued to be essential.
complex procedural definitions examples15
Complex Procedural Definitions Examples
  • Schmitter & Karl:Dahl’s requirements plus a few more:
    • Elected leaders must not be subject to veto from unelected officials.
    • Elected officials must be able to make binding decisions without approval of foreign actors.
complex procedural definitions examples16
Complex Procedural Definitions Examples
  • Larry Diamond adds many institutions for protecting liberal democracy:
    • Constitution.
    • Civil society.
    • Independent media.
    • Independent judiciary.
different types of definitions of democracy17
Procedural Definitions

Substantive, “Outcome”-focused Definitions

Different types of definitions of democracy

Minimal electoral definitions

More complex procedural definitions

(“liberal democracy”)

Maximalist definitions

substantive definitions of democracy
Substantive Definitions of Democracy
  • Demand that democratic regime must succeed in providing outcomes that promote equality among citizens.
substantive definitions examples
Substantive DefinitionsExamples
  • Participatory democracy or deliberative democracy.
  • e.g. Benjamin Barber: “strong democracy in the participatory mode.”
substantive definitions examples20
Substantive DefinitionsExamples
  • Equal socio-economic outcomes.
  • e.g. Ann Phillips(feminist): outcomes should allow all women to have equal chance with men at participating.
    • Social and economic inequalities prevent.
    • Actual participation most important measure of democracy.
different types of definitions of democracy21
Procedural Definitions

Substantive, “Outcome”-focused Definitions

Different types of definitions of democracy

Minimal electoral definitions

More complex procedural definitions

(“liberal democracy”)

Maximalist definitions

is democracy a continuous or dichotomous variable
Is democracy a continuous or dichotomous variable?
  • Dichotomous = 2 values or categories
  • Continuous = a spectrum of infinite measures, not separated into distinct categories
what democracy is not not all good things go together schmitter karl
What democracy is not – Not all good things go together(Schmitter & Karl)
  • Not necessarily capitalism or economic freedoms.
  • Not necessarily more orderly, stable, or consensual than nondemocracy.
diamond on stability
Diamond on stability:
  • Democracy depends on minimal coercion and maximum consent.
  • Results in three constant paradoxes re: stability:
diamond 3 paradoxes related to stability
Diamond: 3 paradoxes related to stability
  • Conflict vs. consensus. There must be disagreements and opposition in order to allow competition…Yet not too much disagreement!
diamond 3 paradoxes related to stability26
Diamond: 3 paradoxes related to stability
  • Representativeness vs. governability. Governments must be responsive to constituencies, yet must be able to govern effectively.
diamond 3 paradoxes related to stability27
Diamond: 3 paradoxes related to stability
  • Consent vs. effectiveness.
    • Democracy requires consent.
    • Consent based on legitimacy.
    • Legitimacy based on effectiveness.
    • Effectiveness requires unpopular decisions.