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Chapter 8. Assessment Intelligence. Intelligence is often conceptualized as a general intellectual ability, but there is little agreement on what specific skills or abilities contribute to intelligence. What is Intelligence?. General Intelligence Factor Ability Traits Multiple Intelligences

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chapter 8

Chapter 8

Assessment Intelligence


Intelligence is often conceptualized as a general intellectual ability, but there is little agreement on what specific skills or abilities contribute to intelligence.

What is Intelligence?


General Intelligence Factor

Ability Traits

Multiple Intelligences

Information Processing Ability

Definitions of Intelligence


Adaptation to the environment

Basic mental processes

Higher order thinking

Information processing

Awareness and control of cognitive processes

Common Factors of Intelligence


1904: Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory

1966: Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc Theory

1970: Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

1970: Luria’s Model

1983: Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

1993: Carroll’s Three-Stratum Model of Human Abilities

2000: Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Hierarchical Three-Stratum Model

1994: Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive (PASS) Theory of Cognitive Processing

Theories of Intelligence


Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory

  • Intelligence is comprised of: 1) General Intelligence Factor (g); 2) Specific Factors
  • Spearman’s theory was highly controversial, but found support
  • in the fact that all mental tests were positively correlated.

Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc Theory

  • Crystallized
    • word fluency
    • general information
    • vocabulary
    • verbal comprehension
  • Fluid
    • Speed of information processing
    • Ability to detect relationships
    • Other abstract thinking abilities
  • Cattell proposed two primary
  • Forms of intelligence:
    • Crystallized
    • Fluid
  • According to Cattell’s theory
  • both forms of intelligence increase
  • throughout childhood and adolescence.
  • However, fluid intelligence begins
  • to decline in the 30’s and 40’s.

A student of Cattell’s, John Horn, adding several broad abilities beyond Cattell’s original theory.

short-term acquisition and retrieval (Gsm)

visual intelligence (Gv)

auditory intelligence (Ga)

long-term storage and retrieval (Glr)

cognitive processing speed (Gs)

correct decision speed (CDS)

quantitative knowledge (Gq

reading and writing skills (Grw)

Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc Theory


Carroll used an empirical approach to determine that there are three layers or strata of cognitive ability.

Stratum III: generalability, similar to g.

Stratum II: broadabilities, which include fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, general memory and learning, broad visual perception, broad auditory perception, broad retrieval ability, broad cognitive speediness, and processing speed.

Stratum I: narrow abilities, which are specific factors grouped under the Stratum II abilities.

Carroll’s Three-Stratum Model of

Human Abilities


The Hierarchical model is an integration of the Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc and Carroll three-stratum theory.

The CHC model has been described as a hierarchical, multiple-stratum model with general intelligence(g) at the apex (or stratum III), nine broad cognitive abilities (G) (stratum II), and at least 69 narrowcognitive abilities (stratum I).

Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC)

Hierarchical Three-Stratum Model


Intelligence develops through the interaction of biological maturation and experience and progresses through four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concreteoperational, and formal operational periods

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive



Assimilation is the process by which a child relates new objects and ideas to familiar objects and ideas.

Accommodation is the process by which a child changes behavior and psychological structures in response to environmental events.

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive



Neuropsychological approach

Examined client’s with brain lesions to determine functions of brain sections.

Integration of 3 “blocks” of the brain.

3 Blocks in brain’s functional system:

Block 1: arousal, concentration, attention

Block 2: Using senses to integrate data

Block 3: Executive functions (planning, responding, etc.)

Luria’s Model


Gardner proposed that there are eight types of intelligence that work together to solve problems.

Linguistic intelligence

Logical/mathematical intelligence

Spatial intelligence

Bodily/kinesthetic intelligence

Musical/rhythmic intelligence

Interpersonal intelligence

Intrapersonal intelligence

Naturalistic intelligence

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple



Designed to evaluate cognitive strengths and weaknesses.

Excellent predictors of academic success.

Used for:

screening for potential problems

identification of intellectual ability

placement of individuals

support in clinical evaluation

Intelligence Tests


Das and colleagues’ theory centers on the concept of information processing.They suggested that four cognitive processes are the basic building blocks of human intellectual functioning (extension of Luria’s work):

Planning is a mental activity that involves setting goals, problem-solving, knowledge, intentionality, and self-regulation to achieve a desired goal.

Attention is the process involving focused cognitive activity (while ignoring other distractions).  

Simultaneous processing involves perceiving information as a whole (e.g., spatially).

Successive processing involves the ability to integrate information into a sequential order.


(PASS) Theory of Cognitive Processing


Intelligence tests measure an individual’s current intellectual ability level.

Achievement tests measure what an individual knows or can do right now, in the present.

Aptitude tests are future-oriented, predicting what an individual is capable of doing with further training and education.

Intelligence, Achievement and

Aptitude Tests – Comparison


Is intelligence one general ability, or many abilities?

Is intelligence hereditary or learned?

How can we overcome cultural bias in intelligence tests?

Is intelligence stable over the lifespan?

How do we account for increasing IQ scores over the last 100 years?

Issues in Intelligence Testing