Chapter 8. Assessment Intelligence. Intelligence is often conceptualized as a general intellectual ability, but there is little agreement on what specific skills or abilities contribute to intelligence. What is Intelligence?. General Intelligence Factor Ability Traits Multiple Intelligences
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What is Intelligence?
Information Processing Ability
Definitions of Intelligence
Basic mental processes
Higher order thinking
Awareness and control of cognitive processes
Common Factors of Intelligence
1966: Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc Theory
1970: Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
1970: Luria’s Model
1983: Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
1993: Carroll’s Three-Stratum Model of Human Abilities
2000: Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Hierarchical Three-Stratum Model
1994: Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive (PASS) Theory of Cognitive Processing
Theories of Intelligence
short-term acquisition and retrieval (Gsm)
visual intelligence (Gv)
auditory intelligence (Ga)
long-term storage and retrieval (Glr)
cognitive processing speed (Gs)
correct decision speed (CDS)
quantitative knowledge (Gq
reading and writing skills (Grw)
Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc Theory
Stratum III: generalability, similar to g.
Stratum II: broadabilities, which include fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, general memory and learning, broad visual perception, broad auditory perception, broad retrieval ability, broad cognitive speediness, and processing speed.
Stratum I: narrow abilities, which are specific factors grouped under the Stratum II abilities.
Carroll’s Three-Stratum Model of
The CHC model has been described as a hierarchical, multiple-stratum model with general intelligence(g) at the apex (or stratum III), nine broad cognitive abilities (G) (stratum II), and at least 69 narrowcognitive abilities (stratum I).
Hierarchical Three-Stratum Model
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive
Accommodation is the process by which a child changes behavior and psychological structures in response to environmental events.
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive
Examined client’s with brain lesions to determine functions of brain sections.
Integration of 3 “blocks” of the brain.
3 Blocks in brain’s functional system:
Block 1: arousal, concentration, attention
Block 2: Using senses to integrate data
Block 3: Executive functions (planning, responding, etc.)
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple
Excellent predictors of academic success.
screening for potential problems
identification of intellectual ability
placement of individuals
support in clinical evaluation
Planning is a mental activity that involves setting goals, problem-solving, knowledge, intentionality, and self-regulation to achieve a desired goal.
Attention is the process involving focused cognitive activity (while ignoring other distractions).
Simultaneous processing involves perceiving information as a whole (e.g., spatially).
Successive processing involves the ability to integrate information into a sequential order.
(PASS) Theory of Cognitive Processing
Achievement tests measure what an individual knows or can do right now, in the present.
Aptitude tests are future-oriented, predicting what an individual is capable of doing with further training and education.
Intelligence, Achievement and
Aptitude Tests – Comparison
Is intelligence hereditary or learned?
How can we overcome cultural bias in intelligence tests?
Is intelligence stable over the lifespan?
How do we account for increasing IQ scores over the last 100 years?
Issues in Intelligence Testing