Chapter 8. Assessment Intelligence. Intelligence is often conceptualized as a general intellectual ability, but there is little agreement on what specific skills or abilities contribute to intelligence. What is Intelligence?. General Intelligence Factor Ability Traits Multiple Intelligences
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Intelligence is often conceptualized as a general intellectual ability, but there is little agreement on what specific skills or abilities contribute to intelligence.
What is Intelligence?
Information Processing Ability
Definitions of Intelligence
Basic mental processes
Higher order thinking
Awareness and control of cognitive processes
Common Factors of Intelligence
1966: Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc Theory
1970: Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
1970: Luria’s Model
1983: Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
1993: Carroll’s Three-Stratum Model of Human Abilities
2000: Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Hierarchical Three-Stratum Model
1994: Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive (PASS) Theory of Cognitive Processing
Theories of Intelligence
A student of Cattell’s, John Horn, adding several broad abilities beyond Cattell’s original theory.
short-term acquisition and retrieval (Gsm)
visual intelligence (Gv)
auditory intelligence (Ga)
long-term storage and retrieval (Glr)
cognitive processing speed (Gs)
correct decision speed (CDS)
quantitative knowledge (Gq
reading and writing skills (Grw)
Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc Theory
Carroll used an empirical approach to determine that there are three layers or strata of cognitive ability.
Stratum III: generalability, similar to g.
Stratum II: broadabilities, which include fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, general memory and learning, broad visual perception, broad auditory perception, broad retrieval ability, broad cognitive speediness, and processing speed.
Stratum I: narrow abilities, which are specific factors grouped under the Stratum II abilities.
Carroll’s Three-Stratum Model of
The Hierarchical model is an integration of the Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc and Carroll three-stratum theory.
The CHC model has been described as a hierarchical, multiple-stratum model with general intelligence(g) at the apex (or stratum III), nine broad cognitive abilities (G) (stratum II), and at least 69 narrowcognitive abilities (stratum I).
Hierarchical Three-Stratum Model
Intelligence develops through the interaction of biological maturation and experience and progresses through four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concreteoperational, and formal operational periods
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive
Assimilation is the process by which a child relates new objects and ideas to familiar objects and ideas.
Accommodation is the process by which a child changes behavior and psychological structures in response to environmental events.
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive
Examined client’s with brain lesions to determine functions of brain sections.
Integration of 3 “blocks” of the brain.
3 Blocks in brain’s functional system:
Block 1: arousal, concentration, attention
Block 2: Using senses to integrate data
Block 3: Executive functions (planning, responding, etc.)
Gardner proposed that there are eight types of intelligence that work together to solve problems.
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple
Excellent predictors of academic success.
screening for potential problems
identification of intellectual ability
placement of individuals
support in clinical evaluation
Das and colleagues’ theory centers on the concept of information processing.They suggested that four cognitive processes are the basic building blocks of human intellectual functioning (extension of Luria’s work):
Planning is a mental activity that involves setting goals, problem-solving, knowledge, intentionality, and self-regulation to achieve a desired goal.
Attention is the process involving focused cognitive activity (while ignoring other distractions).
Simultaneous processing involves perceiving information as a whole (e.g., spatially).
Successive processing involves the ability to integrate information into a sequential order.
(PASS) Theory of Cognitive Processing
Intelligence tests measure an individual’s current intellectual ability level.
Achievement tests measure what an individual knows or can do right now, in the present.
Aptitude tests are future-oriented, predicting what an individual is capable of doing with further training and education.
Intelligence, Achievement and
Aptitude Tests – Comparison
Is intelligence hereditary or learned?
How can we overcome cultural bias in intelligence tests?
Is intelligence stable over the lifespan?
How do we account for increasing IQ scores over the last 100 years?
Issues in Intelligence Testing