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Fantastic 4. Maria Nunez Nicole Lucas Jennifer Chen Aileen Tang. Women Inventors and Innovators in Agriculture. By: Maria Nunez. The Hoe Inventors of the gardening were almost certainly women of the New Stone Age. A stick with a truncated crotch makes a hoe

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    1. Fantastic 4 Maria Nunez Nicole Lucas Jennifer Chen Aileen Tang

    2. Women Inventors and Innovators in Agriculture By: Maria Nunez

    3. The Hoe • Inventors of the gardening were almost certainly women of the New Stone Age. • A stick with a truncated crotch makes a hoe • One Neolithic culture: Catal Huyuk in Anatolia, women are buried with hoes and men on the other hand are not. • Inca Hoe: Straight stick fastened to a curved one. Maria Nunez

    4. The Spade • Important cultivating tool for thousands of years in the New Guinea Highlands. • Spade was previously made out of wood and by the women, and now its made out of metal. • In Ayala’s calendar in Time/Life Book’s First Farmers volume, both sexes worked hard as cultivators among the Incas: women were very important both in the founding of Inca culture and in cultivation. Maria Nunez

    5. The Plough • Is one of the two marks distinguishing agriculture from horticulture. • Women never credited for inventing the plough • Not strong enough • Women were trained for strength. • In the light soils ploughing was not the arduous task it was in the heavy soils, so early “stratch” ploughs did not have to turn the earth, but just scratch a shallow furrow for the seed. • Early wooden ploughs, found by archaeologists were not recognized • References to earliest- hoe-ploughs and ards are scarce • When historians say plough the generally mean the much later and heavier sod-turning ploughs- iron tipped, male-guided, animal-drawn. • “The first cultivating tool was a hoe pushed or pulled by a man or woman. Later, two oxen were attached and the hoe became a plow.” (Britannica) • Athena and Minerva are credited for inventing the plough Maria Nunez

    6. Irrigation • Second defining characteristic of full-scale agriculture: reference is to large-scale or “scientific” irrigation • Small Scale irrigation did arose with horticulture wherever early crops demanded a great deal of water. • Thus, women were the most likely the earliest irrigators. • Two types of irrigation: bringing plants to water, and bringing water to plants • Catal Huyuk in the 7th millenium BCE Bringing plants to water • Palestine, Jericho in 8000 BCE Bringing water to plants • Semi-mythical Semiramis created the first example of overhead irrigation, and inventing tunnels and causeways over morasses. • Malaysia, Dyak women created a system of irrigation Maria Nunez

    7. Domestication & Selective Breeding of Plants • Women cultivated and improved basic food plants: wheat, barley, rice, millet, maize, yams, manioc, squashes, and taro. • During the Neolithic Revolution: • Womankind discovered suitable plants • Appropriate methods for cultivating • Created devise special implements for tilling the soil • Reaping and storing the crop = converting into food • 6000 BCE Catal Huyuk had developed bread wheat from emmer wheat and a naked six-row barley from simpler two-row barley • Both of these were hybrids • Women recognized the hybrids at harvest time • So they saved the seeds for planting, gradually increasing them until they formed the whole seed stock Maria Nunez

    8. Domestication cont… • 150 plant species cultivated for food 30 provide almost 85% of our food by weight & 95% of cal and protein 75 % of human food energy only comes from: wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, sorghum, millet and rye = Domesticated in PreHistory • Women in South America a millennia ago • New Guinea and elsewhere, quinoa, the winged bean, and tarwi where domesticated • Pre-Incan Peruvians discovered propagation by cutting because they grew certain sterile squashes and melons impossible to propagate any other way. Maria Nunez

    9. Gender & Agriculture • Both men and women played a critical role in agriculture, producing, processing and providing the food we eat. • Rural women responsible for half of the world's food production • Produce between 60 and 80 percent of the food in most developing countries • Yet women are farmers are overlooked • Gender bias and gender blindness persist • Rural women are the main producers of the world's staple crops • Rice, wheat, and maize • Empowerment of women is key to raising levels of: • nutrition • improving the production • distribution of food and agricultural products • enhancing the living conditions of rural populations. Maria Nunez

    10. The Food Timeline 1st Century to the 16th Century Nicole Lucas

    11. 1st Century • Fried Chicken: Aka- Fricassee which is not fried but simmered in butter & served with creamy sauce. Nicole Lucas

    12. 1st Century continued… • Strawberries: • Goes back as far as Romans and Greeks. • In 1300’s, it was in cultivation with Europe. • The plant was used more for its ornamental flowers rather than food. Nicole Lucas

    13. OtherFoods… • Flan • Lobster • Crab • Shrimp • French toast • Truffles Nicole Lucas

    14. 3rd Century – 6th Century • Lemon (3rd Century): +Presumed it was first grew in India and China. + South Asia used lemons as an antidote for various poisons. +The acidic flavors were appreciated Nicole Lucas

    15. Pretzels • Food historians believed it was used for Lent • One belief of how pretzels were created was by Snyder’s of Hanover in the early 600’s. • A monk reminded his brothers of the meaning of Lent (time of prayer) • Resembled the dough to be crossed arms (popular prayer position during this time). Nicole Lucas

    16. Eggplant • Oldest record to be found was in a Chinese book written in the 5th Century. • The name “eggplant” was given because in the past the color of it was white and shaped like an egg. Nicole Lucas

    17. 7th Century • Kimchi: found in the Book of Si-Kyong (Chinese poetry book). -In the Manchurian region of Korea, kimchi was used to preserve vitamins & minerals in vegetables for the long, cold winters. Nicole Lucas

    18. 7th Century continued… • Spinach: Found in Sasanian, Persia. • Cultivated by Arab agronomists in the Mediterranean climate (hot weather which spinach does not grow well in) with irrigation techniques. Nicole Lucas

    19. 9th Century – 15th Century • Coffee (9th Century): • Story: Kaldi, an Ethiopian goatherd noticed his herd dancing from coffee shrub to another. Kaldi tried one himself and soon frolicked like his herd. Nicole Lucas

    20. Pancakes (13th Century) • The griddle method of cooking is older than oven baking, and pancakes are an ancient form. • Served with pepper and honey • In Europe, it was made during Easter and Shrove Tuesday (Mardi Gras) Nicole Lucas

    21. Pies (14th Century) • The Oxford English Dictionary traces the first use of the word "pie" in 1303. • Assumed created by Arab cooking • The derivation of the word may be from magpie, shortened to pie. • Earlier pies were large with pastry tops Nicole Lucas

    22. Sushi (15th Century) • The beginning of all sushi making was a method of pickling fish practiced first in Southeast Asia. • Mountain people of that region preserved fish by packing it with rice. Nicole Lucas

    23. Sushi Continued… • 2 methods of preservation & rice cultivation. • Nare-zushi: preserving large amounts of fish at one time so it can be edible later in the year. • Namanare-sushi: small quantities used for festivals or feasts. It was a luxury food. Nicole Lucas

    24. 16th Century • Salsa: can be traced back to Ancient Aztecs, Mayans, and Incas. • Was used to reduce fevers & other problems. Nicole Lucas

    25. Pecans • Originated in North America & the river valleys of Mexico. • Were favored since they were accessible to water ways & easier to shell than other nuts. • Was speculated to be used for “Powcohicora” (an intoxicating drink). Nicole Lucas

    26. Cashews • Native to Portugal and Brazil • Was introduced to India for soil retainer purposes to stop erosions on the coasts. • Soon swept within the islands and Africa • Also used to help relieve pain. Nicole Lucas

    27. Skim Milk • In earlier times, it was used to churn into butter or cheeses. • The skim fat was discarded and inferior which only the poor consumed. Nicole Lucas

    28. Other Foods… • Teriyaki chicken • Sweet potatoes • Potato salad • Vanilla Nicole Lucas

    29. Gender and Women Chefs Jennifer Chen

    30. Women and men play critical roles in agriculture throughout the world • producing, processing and providing the food we eat • Rural women are • responsible for 50% of the world's food production • produce 60 – 80% of the food in most developing countries • women farmers overlooked Jennifer Chen

    31. Rural women • main producers of world’s staple crop • rice • wheat • maize • = 90% rural poor’s food intake • sow, weed, apply fertilizer & pesticides, harvest & thresh crops Jennifer Chen

    32. greater contribution to secondary crops • legumes • vegetables • usually grown in home gardens • provide essential nutrients • often only food available if main harvest fail Jennifer Chen

    33. Women & Livestock • feed & milk larger animals • raise poultry & small animals • sheep • goats • rabbits • guinea pigs • when harvest is in provide most of the labor for post-harvest activities • storage • handling • stocking • processing • marketing Jennifer Chen

    34. Rural women assume more prominent roles yet are most disadvantaged of population • men search for paid jobs • rising mortality due to HIV/AIDs • more women are head of households in developing world Jennifer Chen

    35. Gender Bias and Gender Blindness Persist • farmers generally perceived as “male” by policy-makers, development planners & agricultural service deliverers • women find it difficult to gain access to valuable resources such as • land • credit • agricultural inputs • technology • training & services to enhance production capacity Jennifer Chen

    36. Women = invisible partners in development • women’s contribution to agriculture poorly understood • development planning needs ignored Jennifer Chen

    37. Women With Agricultural Inventions By: Aileen Tang

    38. Women Agricultural Inventors • Lizzie Dickelman • Catherine L. Greene • Ann Harned Manning • Harriet Strong • Magdalena Villaruz Aileen Tang

    39. Lizzie Dickelman • Received several patents after WWI • 1917-Metal building plate • 1917-Grain storage construction • 1920-Ventilated storage warehouse design • 1926-Heated brooder house Aileen Tang

    40. Grain Storage Aileen Tang

    41. Catharine L. Greene • Born in 1775 • Married General Nathanial Greene who became an aide to General George Washington • Significant contributor to the invention of the cotton gin • Eli Whitney was her children’s tutor • Widely believed that she gave drawings of the cotton gin concept to Eli Whitney • Some say she only suggested the use of metal rollers • She financed and marketed the cotton gin • Whitney have said that Catharine have helped her invent the cotton gin Aileen Tang

    42. Ann Harned Manning • Credited for: mower, reaper, clover cleaner • William Manning received patent • After William’s death, credit for the inventions were stolen Aileen Tang

    43. Harriet Strong • Born in 1844 • Engineer and entrepreneur • Believed in water conservation • Had five different patents. • Had patented many different types of dams and water storage systems • Proposed a counter plan for food storage • Fought for women’s rights and water conservation Aileen Tang

    44. Aileen Tang

    45. Magdalena Villaruz • Farmer in the Philippines • Invented turtle power tiller • In 1993, a pair of stamps was issued for the 50th anniversary of Philippines’ inventors’ association. • Was awarded with country’s highest recognition in 1995 Aileen Tang

    46. Food Politics • Political aspects of the production, control, regulation, inspection and distribution of food. • Politics can be affected by • Ethical • Cultural • Medical • Environmental disputes concerning proper farming, agricultural and retailing methods and regulations. • Policy • Government policy plays a role in production, safety, and distribution of food • Food poisoning or other forms of outbreaks call for the government to regulate the proper storage and preparation of foods. Like the FDA regulates the safety of food • Technology • The use of technology advancement to enhance production of food has become a controversial issue. • Factory Farming: Raising farm animals in a confinement at high stocking density, like a factory • Genetically Modified Food: Foods derived from genetically modified organisms (changes in their DNA by genetic engineering) ex: omega 3 fatty acids in pigs Maria Nunez

    47. Food Politics Cont… • Security • Food security is an important political issue as national leaders attempt to maintain control of sufficient food supplies for their nation. • It can drive national policy, encourage the use of subsidies to stimulate farming, or even lead to conflict. • Ex: Denial of food can be used as a weapon in war, like it was used in WWI. • 1974 World Food Summit • Defined food security as, “availability at all times of adequate world food supplies of basic foodstuffs to sustain a steady expansion of food consumption and to offset fluctuations in production and prices.” Maria Nunez