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  1. mind

  2. 1) Computation What problem was the system designed to solve? 9.42 28.27 39.58 317.14 3 9 12.6 101

  3. 2) Algorithm What is the step-by-step procedure for solving the problem? Archimedes (287 - 212 BCE) 3.140845 < π < 3.142858

  4. 2) Algorithm What is the step-by-step procedure for solving the problem? Wallis (1616-1703) with 60 iterations: π = 3.1159 with 170 iterations: π = 3.1324

  5. 2) Algorithm What is the step-by-step procedure for solving the problem? π = # inside circle 4 # total http://polymer.bu.edu/java/java/montepi/MontePi.html

  6. 2) Algorithm What is the step-by-step procedure for solving the problem?

  7. 3) Implementation How is the solution realized physically? with 60 iterations: π = 3.1159 with 170 iterations: π = 3.1324 with 171 iterations: π = ?

  8. 3) Implementation How is the solution realized physically? π = # inside circle 4 # total

  9. Neuroimaging is great at asking one particular question: • Are two phenomena the result of a single cognitive process or more than one cognitive process? • Association and dissociation (see Henson, Trends Cogn Sci, 2006; Henson, Quarterly J of Exp Psychol, 2005)

  10. visual imagery  visual perception Visual perception Visual imagery Kosslyn et al. (1993) J Cog Neuro Neuroimaging is great at asking one particular question: • Are two phenomena the result of a single cognitive process or more than one cognitive process? • Association and dissociation (see Henson, Trends Cogn Sci, 2006; Henson, Quarterly J of Exp Psychol, 2005)

  11. Neuroimaging is great at asking one particular question: • Are two phenomena the result of a single cognitive process or more than one cognitive process? • Association and dissociation(see Henson, Trends Cogn Sci, 2006; Henson, Quarterly J of Exp Psychol, 2005) implicit memory  explicit memory (Buckner & Schacter, 1998, Neuron)

  12. “I suppose it is tempting, if all you have is a hammer, to treat every problem as if it were a nail.” – Abraham Maslow, The Psychology of Science (1966)

  13. “I suppose it is tempting, if all you have is a hammer, to treat every problem as if it were a nail.” – Abraham Maslow, The Psychology of Science (1966) Neuroimaging is a problematic tool • expensive • technically challenging • imposes extreme methodological constraints • limited to one DV • limited range of measurable behaviors • one person at a time (no groups) • requires dozens of within-subject trials

  14. How has fMRI addressed social psychological questions? Is social cognition = nonsocial cognition? Default mode of (social) cognition Neural resonance Self-reference effect in memory

  15. Distinctiveness of social cognition “One key question is whether general cognitive processes involved in perception, language, memory, and attention are sufficient to explain social competence, or whether over and above these general processes, there are specific processes that are special to social interaction.” (Blakemore, Winston, & Frith, 2004, p.216) • Inferences • Semantic knowledge • Episodic memory

  16. Distinctiveness of social cognition inferences

  17. Distinctiveness of social cognition inferences False Belief test

  18. Where will Sally look for her ball? Distinctiveness of social cognition inferences False Belief test Most of us Most three-year-olds

  19. Distinctiveness of social cognition inferences

  20. Distinctiveness of social cognition inferences False belief Jenny put her chocolate away in the cupboard. Then she went outside. Alan moved the chocolate from the cupboard into the fridge. Half an hour later, Jenny came back inside. Jenny expects to find her cholocate in the cupboard fridge False photograph A photograph was taken of an apple hanging on a tree branch. The film took half an hour to develop. In the meantime, a strong wind blew the apple to the ground. The developed photograph shows the apple on the ground branch

  21. Distinctiveness of social cognition inferences

  22. Distinctiveness of social cognition inferences Beliefs > Photos Data courtesy of Rebecca Saxe

  23. Distinctiveness of social cognition “One key question is whether general cognitive processes involved in perception, language, memory, and attention are sufficient to explain social competence, or whether over and above these general processes, there are specific processes that are special to social interaction.” (Blakemore, Winston, & Frith, 2004, p.216) • Inferences • Semantic knowledge • Episodic memory

  24. Distinctiveness of social cognition semantics

  25. Distinctiveness of social cognition semantics Left inferior frontal gyrus Inferotemporal cortex

  26. Distinctiveness of social cognition semantics

  27. Distinctiveness of social cognition semantics Be made of wood Chairs Tables Contreras, Banaji, & Mitchell (under review)

  28. Distinctiveness of social cognition semantics Fetch a ball Cats Dogs Contreras, Banaji, & Mitchell (under review)

  29. Distinctiveness of social cognition semantics Enjoy watching football Men Women Contreras, Banaji, & Mitchell (under review)

  30. Distinctiveness of social cognition semantics Paint their faces red Cornell students Harvard students Contreras, Banaji, & Mitchell (under review)

  31. Distinctiveness of social cognition semantics IPL IFG IT nonsocial > social Contreras, Banaji, & Mitchell (under review)

  32. Distinctiveness of social cognition semantics IPL IFG IT nonsocial > social

  33. Distinctiveness of social cognition semantics social > nonsocial dmPFC PCC vmPFC

  34. Distinctiveness of social cognition “One key question is whether general cognitive processes involved in perception, language, memory, and attention are sufficient to explain social competence, or whether over and above these general processes, there are specific processes that are special to social interaction.” (Blakemore, Winston, & Frith, 2004, p.216) • Inferences • Semantic knowledge • Episodic memory

  35. Distinctiveness of social cognition episodic memory Processing information in a social manner produces qualitative changes in episodic memory (Hastie & Kumar, 1979; Hamilton et al., 1980; Srull & Wyer, 1989) (adapted from Hamilton et al., 1980)

  36. Distinctiveness of social cognition episodic memory Form Impression He chose just the right tie to go with his shirt and slacks. Mitchell, Macrae & Banaji (2004), J Neuroscience

  37. Distinctiveness of social cognition episodic memory Remember Order He stepped on his girlfriend's feet while dancing. Mitchell, Macrae & Banaji (2004), J Neuroscience

  38. Distinctiveness of social cognition episodic memory He stepped on his girlfriend's feet while dancing.

  39. Distinctiveness of social cognition episodic memory 1) Distinct neural basis for impression formation v. nonsocial orienting task? Form Impression Remember Order [statement 1] Form Impression [statement 2] Remember Order [statement 3] [statement 4]

  40. Distinctiveness of social cognition episodic memory 1) Distinct neural basis for impression formation v. nonsocial orienting task? Form Impression Remember Order [statement 1] Form Impression [statement 2] Remember Order [statement 3] [statement 4]

  41. Distinctiveness of social cognition episodic memory Impression formation > Sequencing Impression formation Sequencing Mitchell, Macrae & Banaji (2004), J Neuroscience

  42. Distinctiveness of social cognition episodic memory 2) Distinct brain regions critical for successful memory encoding? Form Impression Remember Order [statement 1] Form Impression [statement 2] Remember Order [statement 3] [statement 4]

  43. Distinctiveness of social cognition episodic memory hit 2) Distinct brain regions critical for successful memory encoding? Form Impression Remember Order [statement 1] miss Form Impression [statement 2] Remember Order [statement 3] [statement 4]

  44. Distinctiveness of social cognition episodic memory Impression hits Impression misses Impression formation: hits > misses Mitchell, Macrae & Banaji (2004), J Neuroscience

  45. Distinctiveness of social cognition episodic memory Impression hits Impression misses Sequencing hits Sequencing misses Impression formation: hits > misses Mitchell, Macrae & Banaji (2004), J Neuroscience

  46. Distinctiveness of social cognition episodic memory Form Impression hit Remember Order [statement 1] Form Impression [statement 2] miss Remember Order [statement 3] [statement 4]