BODY MECHANICS SECTION I – WEIGHT TRAINING
Purpose • To understand how the human body moves and functions. • To gain insight into the bodies abilities and limitations.
I) Weight Training A)Proper Technique Lift Safely Lift with a partner whenever possible. Start with a lighter weight then work up to heavier weight. Always use good posture – keeping back straight and chin held up. Breathing – “Blow the weight up”(exhale) – Inhale upon returning the weight to starting position. Use a full range of motion
B) Muscular Performance 1)Understanding the difference between strength and endurance. • Muscular strength – The amount of force a muscle can exert at one time. • Muscular endurance – How long the force of a muscle can be sustained or repeated.
2) Basic Performance of the muscle • How does the muscle use energy. • Your muscles work by contracting, and in order to contract they require fuel. They get that fuel from a chemical that scientists call adenosine triphosphate, or ATP for short. ATP is a high-energy compound, meaning that when its broken down, energy is released. That fleeting spark of energy that ATP produces will drive the contraction of the muscles that enable you to take that step, sprint and jump, shoot that ball, or anything else.
Development of high muscle performance comes from resistance training, repetition and proper nutrition.
3) Strength Training(size, bulk, and power) • Developing strength through progressive resistance training. • Overload Principle – Placing greater than normal demands on the muscle and or muscle groups. • Increasing the amount of weight lifted and resistance used will increase power and strength, which will increase performance. • Standard resistance training is a combination of “repetitions and sets”. A repetition is completion of an exercise one time through a full range of motion. A set is a completed group of repetitions, i.e. three sets of 8 repetitions.
4) Muscular Endurance • Is to increase the number of times you can complete an exercise before failure. • Adding and or subtracting weight and increasing the number of repetitions and or sets will enable the muscle to work longer before failure. • Specificity Of Training – is a term used to pair specific exercises for specific muscles or muscle groups.
5) Benefits Of Weight Training • Weight training can improve overall muscle strength and tone. • Weight training can improve self-esteem and confidence “if you think you look good than you feel better about yourself”.
6) Rest • Rest between workouts is as important as the workout itself. • The body can only repair itself during the rest phase. This is the only time your body adapts recovers from the training and becomes stronger. • The most common workouts toward specific muscle groups. • Three sets of eight to ten repetitions, three days a week with a rest day in-between. • i.e. workout Monday, Wednesday and Friday and taking Tuesdays and Thursdays off to rest and recover.
C) Types of Skeletal Muscular Contraction • Isotonic Contraction • Muscle that moves through a full range of motion. • Muscle will shorten or get longer during the movement phase. • Skeletal muscles are always grouped in pairs due to the fact that they can preform only one function and that is to contract (or get shorter).
Isokinetic Contraction • Is the ability of the muscle to contract creating movement or range of motion. • Isometric Contraction • Is the ability of the muscle to tenses but there is no movement or range of motion.
Stimulus: • Muscle fibers respond to nerve stimulus (impulses). • Stimulated fibers within the muscle respond in unison. • Only a portion of the muscle fibers are capable of contraction at any one time. • Inactive muscle fibers become dormant (unconditioned). • Muscle fibers can be reactivated with training (conditioned).
SECTION II SKELETAL MUSCLES • Muscles that make up your upper body. • Abdomen • Rectus abdominus • Obliques • Upper arm • Biceps (front of upper arm) • Flex – means to bend. • Triceps (back of upper arm) • Extend – means to straighten. • Shoulders: • Deltoid – anterior and posterior • Anterior – means front side of body. • Posterior – backside of body. • Flex – to bend • Extend – to straighten • Trapezius (neck, upper-back and shoulder) • Chest • Pectorals Major • Pectorals Minor
Muscles of Lower Body • Buttocks • Gluteus Maximus • Gluteus Medius • Gluteus Minimus • Calf – (lower leg) • Gastrocnemius • Soleves • Hamstrings – (back of thigh) • BecepsFemoris • Semi-Tendiosis • Semi-Membranosis • Quadriceps – (front of thigh) • Rectus Femoris • VastusLateralis (outside of thigh) • VastusIntermedius (midddle) • VastusMadialis (inside)
Types of Muscles • Skeletal Muscles (voluntary) • Slow twitch muscle fibers • Responsible for endurance • Fast twitch muscle fibers • Responsible for speed and power • Smooth Muscle (involuntary/visceral) • Intestines • Stomach • Blood vessels • Cardiac muscle • Heart muscle
Muscle Attachments: • Tendons • Attach muscle to bone • Ligaments • Attach bone to bone. • Origin of Muscle • Proximal (upper) end of muscle, i.e. top of bicep or top of triceps. • Insertion point of Muscle • Distal (lower) end of muscle, i.e. bottom of bicep, top of triceps.
SECTION III – MOTION & MOVEMENT • Factors That Affect Motion • Gravity: gravity is a natural force that resists motion and pulls everything toward the center of the earth. • Stability: the wider and lower the center of gravity the more stable the body becomes. • Balance: an even distribution of weight that enables someone or something to remain upright and steady.
Laws of Motion: • Newton’s Laws • A body at rest/motion will remain at rest/motion unless acted upon by an outside force, i.e. gravity. • The acceleration of an object is proportional to the mass of the object and the force causing it (Speed) • For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. • (FORCE = MASS X ACCELERATION )
Types of Motion • Translatory Motion • Linear motion – body/objet moves in a straight line, moving in the same direction and speed. • Curvilinear Motion • A curve ball in baseball • A thrown football • Rotary Motion: • Angular motion - movement in an arc or circle around a fixed point. ; i.e. throwing, tumbling, swimming, biking.
IV LEVERS • PARTS OF LEVERS • Movement in the body is produced by a system of levers. These series of levers work together to produce coordinated action, some by actual movement (dynamic) and others by stabilization (static). • First Class Lever • axis is placed between force and resistance • examples: crowbar, seesaw, scissors • examples in body:
examples in body: elbow extension • triceps applying force to olecranon (F) in extending the non-supported forearm (R) at the elbow (A) • flexing muscle • agonist (F) and antagonist (R) muscle groups are simultaneously contracting on either side of a joint axis (A).
lever characteristics balanced movement • axis is midway between force and resistance • e.g.: seesaw • speed and range of motion • axis is close to force • e.g.: elbow extension • force • axis is close to resistance
Second Class Lever • resistance is between axis and force • classic examples: wheelbarrow, nutcracker • complex example: rowing • paddle in water acts as slipping axis (A) • boat resistance is resistive force (R) • rower is motive force (F) • relatively few examples in body • planter flexion of foot to raise body up on toes • ball of foot (A) serves fulcrum as ankle plantar flexors apply force to calcaneus (F) to lift resistance of body at tibial articulation (R) with foot. • entire body during push-up • foot is axis of rotation (A) when reaction force of ground pushing against hands (F) lifts weight of body's center of gravity (R). • lever characteristics • produces force: large resistance can be moved by a relatively small force • weight machines: more resistance needed, lower inertia, smoother feel.
Third Class Lever • force is placed between the axis and resistance • examples: • tongs: food (R) is supported by grip on handles (F) while axis is on opposite end. • shovelling: dirt on shovel (R) is lifted by force to handle by hand (F) while upper hand on end of shovel handle serves as axis (A) • rowing: oar is moved through water (R) by pulling on middle of oar (F) while holding end of oar with opposite hand (A). • Note: shovelling and rowing actions can also be first class lever systems if the hand closes to the force remains stationary (A) and the hand on the far end of the shovel or oar is moved (F). • batting: ball is hit (R) by moving bat toward ball with hand of far arm (F) while supporting lower portion of bat with hand of near arm (A).
SECTION (V) MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION • Anabolic Steroids • Made from male hormone testosterone • Improves size, strength, performance and recovery but at a price. • Produces harmful and permanent side affects. • Effects usually occur in 4-6 weeks. Benefits stop as soon as the steroids stop. • Headaches, nausea, dizziness, facial hair on women, breast development in men, baldness, acne, shrinkage of testis in males. • Emotional side effects include: Anger and hostilty (known as roid rage).
Definition of Body Composition • In physical fitness, body composition is defined as the percentage of fat, muscle, and bone in the body. Usually it’s expressed as a ratio of lean mass to fatty mass. Lean mass includes muscle, bone, skin, internal organs and body water. Fatty mass is mostly composed of body fat (subcutaneous fat) as well as internal essential fat surrounding organs. Body composition will typically be displayed as either a percentage of fat (body fat percentage or %fat) or as a percentage of lean body mass (LBM).
Why Is Body Composition Important? • Excess body fat, or a body composition with a high fat-to-muscle ratio is unfavorable because it increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, Type II diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and certain cancers. Excess body fat, especially at levels considered obese, can also put stress on the joints and interfere with mobility and the ability to perform everyday activities.
Ideal Body Fat Percentage Chart #1: ACE • The chart below from the American Council on Exercise (ACE) is one of the most commonly used body fat charts.1 As you can see, women have a higher body fat percentage relative to men for a given level. Women have more fat because of physiological differences such as hormones, breasts, and sexual organs. In addition, women need a higher amount of body fat for ovulation.
SECTION VI BASIC NUTRITION GUIDE • If your goal is to eat more healthfully, you're not alone. Many people would like to improve their nutrition, especially considering the serious health risks of eating a poor diet. • Step 1 • Eat more fruits and vegetables. According to the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, most Americans do not eat enough fruits and veggies. Because they're packed with vitamins, fiber and antioxidants, the American Cancer Society recommends consuming at least five servings of these foods per day for optimal health.
Step 2 • Include whole grains in your diet. Whole grains, like whole-wheat bread, brown rice, oatmeal and whole-grain pasta, provide more fiber and nutrients than refined grains such as white bread and white rice. For best nutrition, switch as many of your usual grain foods from the refined variety to the healthier, heartier, whole-grain type.
Step 3 • Choose leaner sources of protein, including plant-based proteins at times, advises the Harvard School of Public Health. Many cuts of meat are high in saturated fat and cholesterol, which can cause health problems. For best nutrition, choose high-protein foods that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and provide other nutrients as well. Good options include fish, poultry, beans, legumes, egg whites, tofu and other soy protein products.
Step 4 • Avoid high-fat, high sugar treats. This simple rule is a basic of good nutrition, because most treats or "junk" foods are high in calories, saturated fat, sugar or all three, while containing minimal -- if any -- nutrition. Cut down on or eliminate candy, cookies, cake, doughnuts, chips, fast food, soda and fried foods from your diet to improve your nutrition tremendously.
Step 5 • Get active. Regular exercise is a necessary sidekick to good nutrition; a healthy diet helps fuel your muscles for activity, and activity burns calories and keeps your metabolism running to balance out your food intake -- in addition to providing numerous health benefits. Incorporate regular physical activity into your schedule as you follow the guidelines above, and you'll be enjoying a more nutritious and healthy lifestyle.
FACT YOU SHOULD BE AWARE OF • Childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and tripled in adolescents in the past 30 years.1, 2 • The percentage of children aged 6–11 years in the United States who were obese increased from 7% in 1980 to nearly 18% in 2010. Similarly, the percentage of adolescents aged 12–19 years who were obese increased from 5% to 18% over the same period.1, 2 • In 2010, more than one third of children and adolescents were overweight or obese.1 • Overweight is defined as having excess body weight for a particular height from fat, muscle, bone, water, or a combination of these factors.3Obesity is defined as having excess body fat.4 • Overweight and obesity are the result of “caloric imbalance”—too few calories expended for the amount of calories consumed—and are affected by various genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors.5,6
Health Effects of Childhood Obesity • Obese youth are more likely to have risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as high cholesterol or high blood pressure. In a population-based sample of 5- to 17-year-olds, 70% of obese youth had at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease.7 • Obese adolescents are more likely to have prediabetes, a condition in which blood glucose levels indicate a high risk for development of diabetes.8,9 • Children and adolescents who are obese are at greater risk for bone and joint problems, sleep apnea, and social and psychological problems such as stigmatization and poor self-esteem.5,6,10 • Long-term health effects: • Children and adolescents who are obese are likely to be obese as adults11-14 and are therefore more at risk for adult health problems such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, several types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.6 One study showed that children who became obese as early as age 2 were more likely to be obese as adults.12 • Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk for many types of cancer, including cancer of the breast, colon, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, pancreas, gall bladder, thyroid, ovary, cervix, and prostate, as well as multiple myeloma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma.15
Our obsession with sugar, salt and fatBy Alexandra Sifferlin, TIME.com • (TIME.com) -- In his new book, "Salt Sugar Fat," Pulitzer Prize winning investigative reporter Michael Moss takes readers on a tour of the $1 trillion processed food industry, and the sights aren't pretty.
The average American eats 33 pounds of cheese and 70 pounds of sugar a year, and health experts say those trends triggered the obesity epidemic that has left millions at risk of heart disease, diabetes and other chronic health conditions.
Take sugar for example. The optimum amount of sugar in a product became known as the "bliss point." Food inventors and scientists spend a huge amount of time formulating the perfect amount of sugar that will send us over the moon, and send products flying off the shelves.
When it came to fat, it was the amazing role of what the industry calls the "mouth feel." That's the warm, gooey taste of cheese, or the bite into a crisp fried chicken that you get. It rushes right to the same pleasure centers of the brain that sugar does, but fat is carrying twice as many calories, so it is more problematic from an obesity standpoint. There is almost no limit to the bliss point in fat.
When it comes to salt, what was really staggering to me is that the industry itself is totally hooked on salt. It is this miracle ingredient that solves all of their problems. There is the flavor burst to the salt itself, but it also serves as a preservative so foods can stay on the shelves for months. It also masks a lot of the off-notes in flavors that are inherent to processed foods.
After all your research, do you believe these foods can be considered "addictive?" • That is the one single word that the food industry hates: "addiction." They much prefer words like "crave-ability" and "allure." Some of the top scientists who are very knowledgeable about addiction in the country are very convinced that for some people, the most highly sugared, high fat foods are every bit as addictive as some narcotics.
The head of the National Institute on Drug Abuse in Washington says that it's more difficult for people to control their eating habits than narcotics. • Were you surprised by how many scientists and food company executives avoid their own products? • The scientists and executives were pretty honest about their roles in creating unhealthy food. Did you get the impression they felt guilty about their products?
One reason they don't eat their own products, is that they know better. They know about the addictive properties of sugar, salt and fat.
HOW AND WHY • Physical fitness and proper nutrition in the adolescent can pave the way for a lifelong interest in good health. Once someone is used to fitness, a life without physical activity will not feel right. Eating a well-balanced diet is needed throughout life, but is especially important during the developing adolescent stage.
Heart-Healthy Lifestyle • Physical activity and proper nutrition are two main components of a heart-healthy lifestyle. Both can improve your cardiovascular functioning and longevity. Proper nutrition consists of whole grains, nonfat or low-fat dairy foods, nuts, lean protein, plant-based oils, fruits and vegetables, according to the American Heart Association and the Mayo Clinic. Physical activity involves 150 minutes weekly. Thirty minutes on five or more days is recommended, but this amount can be divided into 10-minute increments.
It's not who you are that holds you back, it’s who you think you’re not. -Anonymous • In this galaxy there’s a mathematical probability of three million Earth-type planets. And in the universe, three million milliongalaxies like this. And in all that, and perhaps more...only one of each of us.