Blended learning : what and why Husnulatiyah Lily Meilia Harisuci AkhmadRiyanto
Introduction • Definition of Blended Learning • The Reason of using blended Learning
Definitions • No single definition. Experts have different understanding. Some of them are: • According to university Wolverhampton (2010).” blended learning is an approach to learning and teaching which combine and aligns learning undertaken in face to face session with learning opportunities created online. • LittleJhon and pegler (2006:4).” blended learning is new types of learning activities challenge our thinking as how learning might be facilitated, creating new etiquettes of learning and teaching and shifting the locus of control from teacher to the learner”.
Pensylvania State university (2009) explained that a blended learning approach combines face to face classroom methods with computer-mediated activities to form an integrated instructional approach. • Whitelock and jelfs: the combination of a number of pedagogic approaches, irrespective of learning technology use. • Valiathan (2002): skill-driven learning, which combines self-faced learning with instructor or facilitator support to develop specific knowledge and skill.
Blended learning levels • Activity level: learning activity involves face to face and on-line activity. • Class level : it combines between some face to face instruction and some on-line courses • Program level: applied to higher education which provides degree. • Institution level: it refers to the responsibility to incorporates face to face
Reasons: • Enriching education • Knowledge access • Social interaction
Personal agent • Efficiency • Ease of revision (Osguthrope and Graham)
The Advantages: • Accessibility and flexibility • Less face to face learning • Enhancing learning independency
Various types of learning experience • Retaining social interaction between students • Promoting participation for introverts
Blended Learning provide a complete learning environment • Full provision of module related documents in electronic format. • Regular formative assessment with feedback • Opportunities to learn from each other collaboratively
Electronic personal development planning • The opportunity to submit all appropriate summative assessments electronically. • Face to face learning is interactive
Learner is able to: • Have 24/7 access to all learning content, and equality of access • Gauge their progress against the learning outcomes • Participate in • Use asynchronous collaborative learning • Understand students’ learning process • Save time and paper (Hartoyo)
Outlines blended learning approach: • Live face to face * Instructor- led classroom * Workshops * Coaching/ Mentoring * On-the-job (OTJ) training
Live face-to-face (informal) • Collegial connections • Work teams • Role modeling
Virtual Collaboration/ Synchronous • Live e-learning class. • E-mentoring • Virtual Collaboration/ asynchronous • Email • Online bulletin boards • Online communties
Self Paced Learning • Web-learning modules • Online resources learning • Simulations • Scenarios • Video and audio CD/ DVDs • Online self-assessments • workbooks
Performance Support • Help systems • Print job aids knowledge databases • Documentation • Performance/ decision support tools
ICT Language Learning By Hari Suci Sulistiawati
2.5. Blended Learning application in Language Learning The purpose of blended learning is to enhance language learning quality. There are so many methods, strategy, and approaches emerge as the rapid growth of science and technology. One of those strategies is “blended e- learning cooperative approach”.
There are four communicative competences which are used at the same time according to Tarigan (1984) • Blended e-learning (BeL) • Blended learning term describes learning experience which integrates some methods. • Cooperative Learning (CL) • Cooperative learning was firstly introduced by Johnson and Johnson (1998). They defined cooperative learning as a learning process which students learn in pairs or groups.
Blended e-learning cooperative approach (BeLCA) • This approach combines face-to-face learning, the utilisation of technology in learning, and learning activity in pairs or groups. • Three types of interaction: • 1. Social interaction, • 2. Material, and • 3. Teacher interaction.
BeLCA offers some disadvantages, such as: • Internet cost, • Computer availability in a great number of schools, • Many teachers do not have enough technology literacy, • Students readiness, • Teachers’ workload, • Institution support, and • Internet abuse anxiety.
2.6. Blended Learning Prospect • Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia promotes: • The utilisation of Ict in learning • On-line courses • Content development training • E-learning services • E-learning devices
The steps to design and develop Blended Learning (Dick, Carey and Carey, 2001): • Analyses • Design • Development • Implementation • Evaluation
7 phases of ADDIE model: • Analysis • Design • Development • Implementation • Execution(try out) • Evaluation • Feed back
Education has mingled with technology for years. Technology utilization in education is increasing and appreciated Not only in advance countries, the develop countries also utilise this apporach in learning like Indonesia, Egypt Minister of Education and Culture of Indonesia has established the education reform that promotes the utilixation of ICT in learning On-line courses, content development training, e-learning managemnt E-learning services, and e-learning devices.
Blended e-learning cooperative approach comprises three types of interaction: Social Interaction Material Teacher interaction
The model of BeLCA design consists of seven phases as presented by Dick and Carey 2002 which is based on the systematic development of learning. They are: • Analysis • This phase determines what is going to be taught • 2. Design • This phase determines how material will be taught. • 3. The preparation and development • In this phase, we must prepare the tools which are going to be used, materials, strategies, sequence, and all the resources that have been mention
4. Implementation This phase involes the use of software for e-learning process. 5. Implementation (pre-test)/Try out In this phase, the module was ready for the learning process 6. Evaluation Data entry that was collected during the implementation process, including pre-test and the problems and difficulties that arises during the implementation is evaluated 7. Feedback Pre-test result, comments, suggestions from colleagues has to be Considered.
E-learning development model Analysis Evaluation Design Feedback Development Try Out Implementation
Factors that Promote Successful Blended Learning: • Institutional success factors • Regarding teachers • Regarding students
Institutional success factors: • a. Blended learning models are developed that respond • to local, community or organisational needs rather than • using generic approach • b. Institution buliding blocks includes organizational readiness • sufficient technical resources, motivated faculty, good • communication and feedback channels with students • (Tabor, 2007)
c. There is a room for staff to develop their own meaning for blended learning (Sharpe et al. 2006) d. Blended learning should be introduced as a scholarly and transformative redesign process within the institution that rebuilds the course rather than simply adding on technology (Sharpe et. al, 2008) e. Carrying out regular evaluations and publicising the results (Sharpe, Befield, Robert and Francis).
Regarding Teachers: • The importance of, and need for, continuing professional • development for teachers with sufficient time for development • should be acknowledge (Vaughan, 2007) • On-going pedagogical and technical support through • membership of a blended community of pracitce is a proven • model that sustains such teacher innovation • (Garrison and Vaughan, 2008) • The importance of dealing with teachers’ fears of losing control • lower student feedback grades and general uneasiness • about the impact of online learning on classroom • relationships should be considered (Vaughan, 2007) • d. The impact on teachers’ workloads mus be taken into account.
Regarding Students: • Students’ learning maturity and readiness for blended learning with • its demands for independent learning must be considered (Tabor, 2007) • b. Students’ expectations, especially their ideas that fewer face-to-face • classes mean less work and the need to develop more responsibility for • their learning and time management skills must be taken into account • (Vaughan, 2007; Tagor, 2007) • c. Consistent and transparent communication around the new expectations • is needed in order to help students understand the blended learning • process. (Sharpe et. al., 2006).