Nouns • Person: hero, teacher, audience, Mai Ling • Place: museums, countries, rain forest, San Diego • Thing: stereo, songs, fences, Pacific Ocean • Idea: sympathy, fairness, generosity, Impressionism
types of nouns • Common noun: names any one of a groups of persons, places, things or ideas. • Generally not capitalized • Mountain, novelist, ship, movie • Proper noun: names a particular Peron, place thing or idea. • Generally capitalized • Mount McKinley, Edith Hamilton, Queen Elizabeth
Types of noun • Concrete noun • Can be perceived by one or more of the senses (sight, touch, hearing, taste, smell) • Dog, sunset, thunder, silk, Nile River • Abstract nouns • Names an idea, a feeling, a quality, or a characteristic. • Liberty, beauty, kindness, success, Marxism • Collective nouns • A group of people, animals, or things • Audience, batch, bouquet, bunch, litter, jury, pride, staff • Compound Nouns • 2 or more words that together name a person, place, thing, idea • Baseball, Civil Rights, sister-in-law
Identify the types of Nouns • Gumbos often contain, okra and sausage, chicken, or seafood. • Gumbos: common, concrete • Okra, sausage, chicken, seafood: common, concrete • The popularity of these dishes and other Cajun dishes has spread throughout the United States. • Popularity • dishes: common, concrete • United States: proper, concrete, compound
Pronouns • Takes the place of one or more nouns or pronouns • She, her, his, him, they, their • Antecedent: the word or word group that a pronoun stands for. • Example: Ms. Hamfeldtis a tough teacher. She gives way too much work. • Which is the pronoun? Which is the antecedent?
Personal Pronouns • Refers to • The one speaking (first person) • The one spoken to (second person) • The one spoken about (third person)
Reflexive Pronoun • Refers to the subject of a sentences and functions as a complement or as an object of a preposition • I am not quit myself today • Myself is a predicate nominative identifying I • Cecilia let herself take a study break • Herself is the direct object of let • They chose costumes for themselves • Themselves is the object of the preposition for
Intensive Pronoun • Has no grammatical function in the sentence. • Ray painted the mural himself • The children dyed the eggs themselves.
Demonstrative and Interrogative Pronouns • Demonstrative: Pointsout a person, place, thing, or idea. • This is our favorite camp site. • These books are going to Goodwill • Interrogative Pronouns: Introduces a question • What is the address of the house? • Whose red truck is parked outside the house?
Indefinite Pronouns • Refers to a person, place, thing or idea that may or may not be specifically named. • Has anyone asked Ms. Stallsworth? • Everything we need is packed in the car.
Identify the Pronoun(s) in the sentence • All of the other members of my family like to go camping, but few of them enjoy the outdoors more than I do. • All of us enjoy anything cooked over a campfire. • Often we tell each other eerrie stories. • Who want to go to sleep afterwards?
adjectives • Modifies a noun or pronoun. • Modify means “to describe” or “to make the meaning of a word more specific”
An adjective may be separated from the word it modifies: • She is clever. • The sky had become cloudy suddenly. • Note: An adjective that is in the predicate and that modifies the subject of a clause or sentence is called a predicate adjective.
Articles • Most frequently used adjectives are a, an, and the • Indefinite articles: a, an • Refer to any member of a general group; come before words that start with vowels • Definite article: the • Refers to someone or something in particular • Examples: • A representative is going to help us. • The representative is going to help us.
Pronoun or Adjective? • Demonstrative, interrogative, and indefinite terms pronouns when they stand for other nouns or pronouns. • When they modify nouns or pronouns, they are adjectives. • Examples: • Pronoun: Which did you choose, Roberto? Adjective: Which book did you choose to read, Alex? • Pronoun: Those are excited fans. Adjective: Those fans are excited.
noun or adjective? • When a word that can be used as a noun modifies a noun or pronoun, it is called an adjective. • Examples: • Salad bowl • Chicken dinner • Gold metal • New England states • Proper nouns remain capitalized when used as an adjective; it is called a proper adjective
Verbs • A verb expresses action or a state of being. There are three kinds: • Main or helping (auxiliary) verbs • Action or linking verbs • Transitive or intransitive verbs
Main verbs and helping verbs • A verb phrase consists of a main verb and one or more helping (auxiliary) verbs.
Notes on verbs • Modals are auxiliary verbs that are used to express an attitude toward the action or state of being of the main verb. • Example: I may go to the concert after all. • May expresses an attitude of possibility in relation to the main verb go • Helping verbs may be separated from the main verb • Did she paint the house? • The word not and its contraction n’t are never part of a verb phrase; they are considered adverbs telling to what extent.
Action verbs • An action verb expresses either physical or mental activity. • Examples • Please return this book. (physical action) • Do you know James? (mental action)
Linking verbs • Connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. This word group is called a subject complement. • Example: • Kelp is the scientific name for seaweed. • Subject complement is name; it identifies Kelp • Kelp tastes good in salads. • Subject complement is good; it describes Kelp
Some of the verbs listed as Others can be used as action verbs as well as linking verbs.
Forms of Be • Not always used as linking verbs • An adverb that tells where or when may follow the form of be • This makes it a state-of-being verb • Example: • My friends and I were there yesterday. • There tells where • Yesterday tells when
Transitive and intransitive verbs • Transitive verbs have an object: a word that tells who or what receives the action of the verb • Examples: • She trusts her friend. • friend receives the action of the verb trusts • Zora Neale Hurston wrote novels. • novels receives the action of the verb wrote • Intransitive verbs does not have an object. • Examples: • The audience applauded. • The trains stops here. • A verb could transitive in one sentence and intransitive in another.
Notes Intransitive and Transitive verbs • Action verbs can be transitive or intransitive. • I studied my geometry notes for an hour. • Luis also studied for an hour. • All linking verbs are intransitive • We are ready for the quiz. • We were told to study a lot. • A verb phrase may be classified as transitive or intransitive and as action or linking • We are planting some cactus dahlias. (transitive action) • They should bloom in about six weeks. (intransitive action) • The flowers will be deep red. (intransitive linking)
Adverbs • Modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb • Tells where, when, how, to what extent • Example • The bird was chirping outside. (where) • The bird chirped today. (when) • The bird chirped loudly. (how) • The bird never chirped. (to what extent)
Examples • Identify each adverb and the verb it modifies. • Birds, bats, and bugs fly effortlessly. • Adverb: effortlessly Verb: fly • In their experiments, they initially produced hot smoke by burning straw and wood. • Adverb: initially Verb: produced • Humans successfully flew for the first time in November of 1783. • Adverb: successfully Verb: flew
Examples • Identify each adverb and the adjective or adverb it modifies • The immensely long wagon train started out from Denver, Colorado. • Adverb: immensely Adjective: long • A moderately hard rain could turn the trail into a swamp. • Adverb: moderately adjective: hard • The large ones we saw were too expensive for us. • Adverb: too adjective: expensive • Suddenly, Juana had a brainstorm. • Adverb: Suddenly Verb: had
Prepositions • A word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun (object of preposition) to another word. • I rodepast the (village) • I rode through the (village). • I rode around the (village). • A preposition, its object, and any modifiers of the object form a prepositional phrase.
Compound Preposition • A preposition that consists of two or more prepositions
Find the prepositions • According to the coaches of the opposing team, the soccer game was delayed because of rain. • Near the edge of the stream, the ducks swam were entering the water to swim across the lake to the other side.
CONJUNCTIONS • A conjunction joins words or word groups • Correlative conjunctions • Pairs of conjunctions that join words or words groups that are used in the same way • Coordinating conjunctions • Join words or word groups that are used in the same way
Coordinating conjunctions:FANBOYS Examples: The orchestra played waltzes and polkas. We can walk to the neighborhood pool or the park.
Correlative conjunctions Examples: Neither the baseball team nor the soccer team has practice today. Both the track team and the volleyball team enjoyed a winning season. Their victories sparked the enthusiasm not only of students but also of teachers and townspeople.
Identify the conjunctions • Both the captains and their crew members looked forward to such visits. • The sailors enjoyed the opportunity not only to chat but also to exchange news. • I looked for Will, but he had already left.
DETERMINING PARTS OF SPEECH • Identify the part of speech of the underlined words in each example: • Rich heard the light patter of raindrops. • Please help your sister with her homework. • All but two of the students voted in the class elections.
DETERMINING PARTS OF SPEECH • The same word can be a different part of speech depending on how it is used in a sentence. So, identify the parts of speech of the word in each example: • They decided that the hedge needed a trim. • Their hedges always look trim and nest. • We usually trim the tree with homemade ornaments. • I wasn’t thirsty, but I did down one glass of water. • Dale ran down the stairs.