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Cellular Energy (Ch. 5). Chloroplasts. Mitochondria. Part 1: Basic Energy Concepts. Potential Energy- stored energy Kinetic Energy- energy of motion First Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created or destroyed. B. A. Quick Review of Cell Concepts.

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cellular energy ch 5

Cellular Energy(Ch. 5)

Chloroplasts

Mitochondria

part 1 basic energy concepts
Part 1: Basic Energy Concepts
  • Potential Energy- stored energy
  • Kinetic Energy- energy of motion
  • First Law of Thermodynamics
    • Energy cannot be created or destroyed

B

A

quick review of cell concepts
Quick Review of Cell Concepts
  • What are the 4 major molecules of life?
      • Protein
      • Lipid
      • Nucleic Acid
      • Carbohydrates- use??
  • What cellular structures make energy?
    • Mitochondria
    • Chloroplasts
part ii mitochondria
Part II Mitochondria
  • Powerhouse of the cell- makes ATP (energy)
  • Makes ATP through Cellular respiration

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy (ATP)

Glucose + Oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + ATP

part ii chloroplasts
Part II Chloroplasts
  • Perform photosynthesis

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy  C6H12O6 + 6 O2

Carbon + Water + Sunlight Glucose +

Dioxide Oxygen

part ii important concepts
Part II Important Concepts
  • Your cells do cellular respiration and have mitochondria!
    • This is a reason why….
    • You need to eat and breathe oxygen,
important concepts
Important Concepts
  • Plant cells have mitochondria too!
    • The amount of mitochondria in plant cells is much smaller than that of animal cells
  • Plant cells have chloroplasts
    • Photosynthesis is the reverse of cellular resp.
    • In other words chloroplasts make the products for cell respiration to start.
    • Cell resp. makes the products for photosynthesis to start.
it s all circular
It’s all Circular!!!!

Cell Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy (ATP)

Photosynthesis

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energyC6H12O6 + 6 O2

part iii energy in autotrophs
Part III: Energy in Autotrophs
  • Autotrophs- organisms that make their own energy (usually from the sun)
    • These organisms do photosynthesis

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy  C6H12O6 + 6 O2

Examples of Autotrophs…

part iii energy in autotrophs1
Part III: Energy in Autotrophs
  • For photosynthesis to work, autotrophs must take in and absorb sunlight
  • Pigments- molecules that absorb light
    • Each pigment absorbs a different wavelength of light
      • Reason why different pigments are different colors
      • Chlorophyll- green (doesn’t absorb green wavelength)
      • Cartenoids- yellow/orange
roy g biv
ROY G BIV

Red: Low frequency

Low Energy

Violet: High Frequency

High Energy

part iv energy in heterotrophs
Part IV: Energy in Heterotrophs
  • Heterotrophs: must consume organisms to get energy
    • Food is Potential Energy (stored in chem bonds)
      • Calorie- units that measure the amount of energy in food (1 cal = heat to raise 1 g of water 1 deg. C)
      • This stored energy in food is used to make ATP
part v atp
Part V: ATP
  • ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Function: Energy for cell
  • Structure:
  • The two phosphate groups have a negative charge and want to repel each other. This bond releases a lot of energy when broken
part v atp1
Part V: ATP
  • Why use ATP?
    • Too much energy in a carbohydrate to be used efficiently
part v atp2
Part V: ATP
  • Making ATP- (All food is made into ATP)
    • 1) Phosphocreatine- enzyme that add P to ADP to make 1 ATP
      • Quick energy
      • Anaerobic (no oxygen needed)
      • Occurs in cytoplasm
part v atp3
Part V: ATP
  • Making ATP
    • 2) Glycolysis and fermentation-partially breaking down glucose to make 2 ATP
      • Short term energy
      • Anaerobic
      • Occurs in cytoplasm
      • Types
        • Humans: Lactic Acid Fermentation
        • Yeast: Alcoholic Fermentation
          • Bread
          • Alcoholic Bevs
part v atp4
Part V: ATP
  • Making ATP
  • 3) Cellular Respiration- complete break down of glucose into 36 ATP

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP

    • Long term energy
    • Aerobic (need oxygen)
    • Occurs in mitochondria
    • Can use carbs, fats, proteins as fuel
part vi diet and exercise
Part VI: Diet and Exercise
  • Metabolism- total of all chemical reactions in the body
    • More active a person is the higher their metabolism
    • Does your metabolism slow down?
    • How do you lose weight through diets?
    • What about those low carb diets?
slide19

Energy (ATP)

Circular

Movement

Active Transport

Production of fats,

Proteins, sugars

Breakdown

of Food

Waste Products

ADP +Pi