Chapter 2 Quiz The Research Enterprise in Psychology
Don’t forget to write your answers on a separate piece of paper to grade when you’re done! 1. Organized sets of concepts that explain phenomena are a) independent variables b) dependent variables c) hypotheses d) theories
2. “Students will be able to read a statement printed in the Comic Sans font faster than the same statement written in the Lucida Calligraphy font.” The previous statement is a(n) a) hypothesis b) theory c) replication d) operational definition
3. A theory is a) a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables b) a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations c) a statement of research results that have been proven to be correct d) a preliminary proposal that has yet to be tested
4. Theoretically, random assignment should eliminate a) sampling error b) the need to use statistics c) concerns over validity d) many confounding variables
5. When subjects in the experimental group put a puzzle piece in the wrong place, the experimenter unconsciously winced. The experimenter did not wince when subjects in the control group put a piece in the wrong place. The wincing of the experimenter must be eliminated because it is a) fraudulent b) a demand characteristic c) a confabulation d) a confounding variable
6. The two basic types of statistics are a) descriptive and inferential b) central tendency and variability c) sampling and correlative d) parametric and nonparametric
7. Of the following, which research method is most effective for studying unusually complex or rare phenomena? a) controlled experiment b) surveys c) naturalistic observation d) case study
8. Of the following, which research method would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between political party membership and attitude toward the death penalty? a) controlled experiment b) naturalistic observation c) test d) survey
9. Of the following, the strongest positive correlation would most likely be shown between a) an adult’s weight and running speed b) close friendships and happiness c) sense of humor and years of education d) visual acuity and salary
10. John wants to study the effects of alcohol on the behavior of college students. For his study, he spends 5 hours every night for 2 weeks at a bar near a college watching how the patrons act before and after drinking alcoholic beverages. The research method John is employing is a a) controlled experiment b) survey c) test d) naturalistic observation
11. What is the median of the following distribution: 6, 2, 9, 4, 7, 3? a) 4 b) 5 c) 5.5 d) 6
12. Of the following, the correlation coefficient that indicates the strongest relationship between the two variables being measured is a) +0.65 b) -0.89 c) 0.00 d) +3.45
13. Inferential statistics help us determine whether ________ played a role in an experiment a) chance b) a dependent variable c) a normal distribution d) genetics
14. Placebo effects occur when a) the sample is not representative of the population b) two variables are confounded c) subjects are influenced by the social desirability bias d) due to their expectations, subjects experience some change from a nonexistent or ineffective treatment
15. Which set of concepts is NOT a closely related set? a) mean, median, mode b) method, results, discussion c) experiment, independent variable, control group d) correlation, sample, journal
1. D 2. A 3. B 4. D 5. D 6. A 7. D 8. D 9. B 10. D 11. B 12. B 13. A 14. D 15. D Chapter 2 Answer Key
Essay Question Possibilities!! • One of the following essay questions will appear on your test, be familiar with all of them!!
Essay Question # 1 • Design a simple experiment to investigate the effects of television violence on children’s aggressive behavior, being sure to identify the independent and dependent variables, and the experimental and control groups.
Essay Question # 2 • Design a simple descriptive/correlational study to investigate the relationship between television violence and children’s aggressive behavior.
Essay Question # 3 • What are the relative weaknesses and strengths of descriptive/correlational research as opposed to experimental research? Under what conditions would a psychologist choose one method as opposed to the other?
Essay Question # 4 • What is the difference between a positive and a negative correlation? List some specific variables that you predict would be positively correlated, and variables that would be negatively correlated, with alcohol consumption by college students.
Essay Question # 5 • How do you feel about the use of animals as research subjects in psychological studies? Back up your position with evidence.
Good Luck! • Make sure to double check all of your answers and study them for the upcoming exam. Remember, AT LEAST FIVE of the questions from this quiz will make some sort of appearance on the chapter test along with one of the essay questions. • Take advantage of this study guide and good luck on your test!