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  1. Transportation Cars, train, and planes… air balloons  Mara Bancroft Mr. Cosentino

  2. Trains • There are various types of trains. Some are for transporting goods and resources from place to place. And people. • Long distance trains • High speed rails • Mono rails • Subways • Tram

  3. Types of rails and which are the most durable . • two steel rails on which the vehicle wheels run, • a series of lateral timber or concrete sleepers (US : ties) • a crushed stone ballast bed • modern technical developments, the overwhelmingly dominant track form worldwide consists of flat-bottom steel rails supported on timber or pre-stressed concrete sleepers (ties), which are themselves laid on crushed stone ballast.

  4. Ballast rails/ Ladder tracks • Consists of a continuous slab of concrete (like a highway structure) with the rails supported directly on its upper surface (using a resilient pad).There are a number of proprietary systems, and variations include continuous in situ placing of a reinforced concrete slab, or alternatively the use of pre-cast pre-stressed concrete units laid on a • Ladder track utilises longitudinal sleepers with gauge restraining cross members, it can be considered a development of Baulk roadbase layer. • Both are expected to cost a lot for repairs and have to close down the sections that are being work on for a while before fully repaired.

  5. 6 types of rails • Bullhead rail-Bullhead rail is similar to double-headed rail but with a heavier profile to the top edge. It became the standard for the British railway system until the mid-20th century but has now been largely replaced by flat-bottom rail • Grooved rail-A grooved rail, groove rail, or girder rail is a special rail designed for tramway or railway track in pavement or grassed surfaces (grassed track or track in a lawn). This was invented in 1852 by Alphonse Loubat, a French inventor • Vignoles rail (flat-bottomed rail)-Vignoles rail is the popular name of the flat-bottomed rail used internationally for railway track, recognising engineer Charles Vignoles who introduced it to Britain • Flanged T rail-strapped wooden rails were used on all American railways until 1831 • Bridge rail(inverted U)- is the name given to a type of railway track or 'rail road' that is formed using rails carried on continuous timber bearings, as opposed to the more familiar 'cross-sleeper' track that uses closely spaced sleepers or ties to give intermittent support to taller rails • Barlow rail (inverted V)-Barlow rail was invented by William Henry Barlow in 1849. It was designed to be laid straight onto the ballast, but the lack of sleepers meant that it was difficult to keep it in gauge.

  6. Cars Fixed wheels on carts are invented in 3500 BC - the first wheeled vehicles in history. Other early wheeled vehicles include the chariot. Then they put motors in cars and it is now the most used mode of transportation by the average person. The highways were invented to make the access to many places much shorter. Highways are made of concrete and there are millions of thousands of paved roadways created since the cobble stanes were replaced.

  7. Planes • Multiude of planes include… • Airplane 1903 • Jet/ jumbo jets 1970 • Supersonic jet 1947 • Space shuttle 1981 • And the occasional kite

  8. Hot air balloon The Montgolfier brothers invent the first hot air balloons in 1783. And a more improved hot air balloon is the blimp.

  9. Work cited • • •,r:6,s:0