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  1. ODU James Clendenin Jaime Conley Emmylou Dulles John Gross Patrick Lewia Jonathan Mills Charles Smith PEGASUS ‘12

  2. Midterm UpdateTopics • Project Background/History • Application • Hardware Updates • Software Updates • Conclusion/Future Work • Questions

  3. Project Background • Create a Petroleum Gas Substitute System (PEGASUS) to run a lawnmower engine • Use the process of biomass gasification to create carbon monoxide which the lawnmower engine can run off of • Create a computer model of the combustion reactions that occur in the biomass gasification system.

  4. Brief History • Coal Gasification first used as early as 1790’s. • Wood (Biomass) Gasification is a source of renewable energy. • Can run off of any organic materials including: trees, crops, garbage. • 1930-1940’s almost all housing heated using coal gasification • Before 1940’s in Europe it was not uncommon to find cars, trucks, tractors, ships, etc. running off gasifiers to produce fuel.

  5. Gasifiers Today • Private Gasification plants found all over the world are producing electricity, heat, liquid fuels, fertilizer, and other chemicals for uses by gov’t and private users. • Most of growth occurring in Asia • New Horizon Corporation – Gasification systems for home. • Have potential to be a future source of cheap renewable energy.

  6. Petroleum/Gasoline Substitute System • Internal Combustion engines run on gas derived from the evaporation of liquid  • PEGASUS fuel is solid – does not evaporate • Purpose and Intent: • Provide a substitute fuel for liquid petroleum products • Transform solid fuel to gas • Transfer maximum amount of energy in state change

  7. Gasification Process • The gas produced depends greatly on the conditions (primarily temperature). • Actual gas production varies widely from theoretical gas equations. • Traditional Theory • A carbonaceous fuel (Wood) is burned in complete Combustion. • This combustion process is used to produce heat for subsequent reactions.

  8. Gasification Process • *Traditional Theory, continued • In the presence of high temperature Carbon, 400-1,000o C, dissociation of CO2 occurs. • This reaction is endothermic, decreasing temperature and leading to reverse reaction.

  9. Dissociation • Traditional Theory continued • Steady state equilibrium chart shows full dissociation at about 1,000o C.

  10. ApplicationGasifier Zones Drying Pyrolysis Combustion Reduction

  11. Application

  12. Gasifier Diagram

  13. HardwareModifications Air Inlet Exhaust Clamps New Blower Constrictor Plate Filter Modification

  14. Software Modeling • Built on Continuing Research • Partial combustion chemistry of biomass fuel, • heat transfer from and throughout the system, • gas flow through the system, • estimated power production from syngas fuel combusted in the lawn mower engine

  15. Software Modeling • Current model is of steady state, steady flow, 1st Law of Thermodynamics, excess fuel combustion gasifier of varying fuel-air ratios, which iterates for flame temperature based on • heat of combustion of (dry hickory wood) fuel, • Heat of reaction of CO + O2<==> CO2 • Enthalpies of products and reactants adjusted from adiabatic flame temperature to T of reactants

  16. Software Modelling • Results-to-date: • Based on the combustion model, the team estimates that a high percentage of products output (60% theoretically) can be achieved with excess fuel conditions at low temperatures (600-800 C) as compared to stoichiometric air conditions, due to the lack of oxygen and inability of reaction mixture to produce CO2 in these conditions.

  17. Software Modeling

  18. Software Modeling

  19. Software Modeling

  20. Software Modeling

  21. Software Modeling

  22. Software Modeling

  23. Software Modeling

  24. Conclusion / Future Work • We have the equipment to begin performing experiments to monitor and adjust the airflow through the system. • We can also begin to test components, such as the heat exchanger in order to find any possible leaks in the system. • We are still working to get the temperature in the gasifier up in order to produce enough CO to start the system.

  25. Questions?