ODU James Clendenin Jaime Conley Emmylou Dulles John Gross Patrick Lewia Jonathan Mills Charles Smith PEGASUS ‘12
Midterm UpdateTopics • Project Background/History • Application • Hardware Updates • Software Updates • Conclusion/Future Work • Questions
Project Background • Create a Petroleum Gas Substitute System (PEGASUS) to run a lawnmower engine • Use the process of biomass gasification to create carbon monoxide which the lawnmower engine can run off of • Create a computer model of the combustion reactions that occur in the biomass gasification system.
Brief History • Coal Gasification first used as early as 1790’s. • Wood (Biomass) Gasification is a source of renewable energy. • Can run off of any organic materials including: trees, crops, garbage. • 1930-1940’s almost all housing heated using coal gasification • Before 1940’s in Europe it was not uncommon to find cars, trucks, tractors, ships, etc. running off gasifiers to produce fuel.
Gasifiers Today • Private Gasification plants found all over the world are producing electricity, heat, liquid fuels, fertilizer, and other chemicals for uses by gov’t and private users. • Most of growth occurring in Asia • New Horizon Corporation – Gasification systems for home. • Have potential to be a future source of cheap renewable energy.
Petroleum/Gasoline Substitute System • Internal Combustion engines run on gas derived from the evaporation of liquid • PEGASUS fuel is solid – does not evaporate • Purpose and Intent: • Provide a substitute fuel for liquid petroleum products • Transform solid fuel to gas • Transfer maximum amount of energy in state change
Gasification Process • The gas produced depends greatly on the conditions (primarily temperature). • Actual gas production varies widely from theoretical gas equations. • Traditional Theory • A carbonaceous fuel (Wood) is burned in complete Combustion. • This combustion process is used to produce heat for subsequent reactions.
Gasification Process • *Traditional Theory, continued • In the presence of high temperature Carbon, 400-1,000o C, dissociation of CO2 occurs. • This reaction is endothermic, decreasing temperature and leading to reverse reaction.
Dissociation • Traditional Theory continued • Steady state equilibrium chart shows full dissociation at about 1,000o C.
ApplicationGasifier Zones Drying Pyrolysis Combustion Reduction
HardwareModifications Air Inlet Exhaust Clamps New Blower Constrictor Plate Filter Modification
Software Modeling • Built on Continuing Research • Partial combustion chemistry of biomass fuel, • heat transfer from and throughout the system, • gas flow through the system, • estimated power production from syngas fuel combusted in the lawn mower engine
Software Modeling • Current model is of steady state, steady flow, 1st Law of Thermodynamics, excess fuel combustion gasifier of varying fuel-air ratios, which iterates for flame temperature based on • heat of combustion of (dry hickory wood) fuel, • Heat of reaction of CO + O2<==> CO2 • Enthalpies of products and reactants adjusted from adiabatic flame temperature to T of reactants
Software Modelling • Results-to-date: • Based on the combustion model, the team estimates that a high percentage of products output (60% theoretically) can be achieved with excess fuel conditions at low temperatures (600-800 C) as compared to stoichiometric air conditions, due to the lack of oxygen and inability of reaction mixture to produce CO2 in these conditions.
Conclusion / Future Work • We have the equipment to begin performing experiments to monitor and adjust the airflow through the system. • We can also begin to test components, such as the heat exchanger in order to find any possible leaks in the system. • We are still working to get the temperature in the gasifier up in order to produce enough CO to start the system.