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A n ENGINEERS V IEW of RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE and AQUAPONICS SYSTEMS PowerPoint Presentation
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A n ENGINEERS V IEW of RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE and AQUAPONICS SYSTEMS

A n ENGINEERS V IEW of RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE and AQUAPONICS SYSTEMS

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A n ENGINEERS V IEW of RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE and AQUAPONICS SYSTEMS

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  1. An ENGINEERS VIEW of RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE and AQUAPONICS SYSTEMS James M. Ebeling, Ph.D. Research Engineer Aquaculture Systems Technologies, LLC Michael B. Timmons, Ph.D. Professor Dept. of Bio. & Environ. Eng. Cornell University

  2. Overview of Unit Operations Carbon Dioxide Removal Aeration Air/Oxygen Fish Culture Tank Disinfection Fine & Dissolved Solids Removal Hydroponics Sludge Biofiltration Nitrification Waste Solids Removal Sludge Monitoring & System Control BIOSECURITY 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  3. Overview of Unit Operations • Hydroponics • Raft • NFT • Reciprocating 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  4. Overview of Unit Operations • Hydroponics • Floating Raft • NFT • Gravel Bed • Drip 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  5. Fish Culture Tank Engineering Design Details “Anything that holds water” 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  6. Fish Culture Tank Engineering Design Details “Cornell type” Dual-Drain Culture Tanks” • "Rule of Thumb" • Dual-Drain Design • Dia:Depth = 3:1 to 6:1 • 15 to 25% through center drain • 75 to 85% through sidewall discharge 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  7. Fish Culture Tank Engineering Design Details Circulation – Drains / Pumped Return Lines • "Rule of Thumb" • Circulation • Fry/Fingerlings – 15 to 30 Min HRT • Growout – 30 to 45 min HRT • Broodstock – 60 min HRT • Purging – 1 to 2 Tank exhanges per day 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  8. Fish Culture Tank Engineering Design Details Predicting Fish Growth Weight = function (length)3 Growth = function (Temperature) • "Rule of Thumb" • Weight vs Length • CFtrout = 400 • CFtilapia = 760 • CFperch = 490 • CFstriped bass = 720 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  9. Fish Culture Tank Engineering Design Details Fish Culture Density "RULE OF THUMB" Fish Culture Density Ddensity Density in kg/m3 (lbs/ft3) L Length of fish in cm (inches) Cdensity tilapia: 0.24 for L in cm (1.5 for L in inches) trout: 0.32 (2.0) perch: 0.40 (2.5) hybrid striped bass: 0.45 (2.8) 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  10. Engineering Design Details Settable Solids Removal • Settling basins 1 lb of feed 0.30 lbs of Solids • "Rule of Thumb" • Settling Basin Design • basin floor area of 1 ft2 per gpm of flow • use 10 inch wide weirs and use rounded edges • maximize length of settling chamber as much as possible 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  11. Engineering Design Details Settable Solids Removal • Swirl separators/ • Radial Flow Clarifers "Rule of Thumb" Radial FlowDesign Surface-loading rate for the radial-flow settler 4.6 gpm/ft2 of settling area 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  12. Engineering Design Details Suspended Solids Removal • Pressurized bead filters • Screen filtration Propeller Washed Bead Filter Bubble Washed Bead Filter • "Rule of Thumb" • Suspended Solids Capture Design • Bead Filter – 5 to 6 lbs of feed per ft3 of media • Screen Filters – see manufacturer recommendations 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  13. Engineering Design Details Fine & Dissolved Solids "Rule of Thumb" Foam Fractionation Tank Volume every 1 to 2 hour 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  14. Engineering Design Details By-Product NOT a Waste Stream Solids Disposal • Land application • Aquaponics • GeoTextile Bags • Composting 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  15. Engineering Design Details Biofiltration / Nitrification Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria 2 NH4+ + OH - + 3 O2  2H + +2 NO2- + 4 H2O Ammonia Nitrite Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria 2 NO2 + 1 O2 2 NO3- Nitrite Nitrate • "Rule of Thumb" • Nitrification of 1 g of ammonia-nitrogen • Yields – 5.93 g of carbon dixoide • Consumes – 4.57 g of oxygen and 7.14 g alkalinity 1 kg feed  about 0.03 kg ammonia 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  16. Engineering Design Details Biofilters Options Moving Bed Biofilter Bead Bioclarifiers • "Rule of Thumb" • MBBR Design • 17.14 g TAN/ft3 /day curler media @ 25 to 30 Deg C • 13.26 g TAN/ft3 /day @ 15 to 20 Deg C • 10.14 g TAN/ft3 /day @ 5 to 10 Deg C • 3 to 5 min HRT • 50% fill factor – max 65% • Air flow: 0.125 scfm/ft3 of reactor About 1 g TAN / m2 of media per day 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  17. Engineering Design Details Aeration / Oxygenation “Rule of Thumb” 1 kg feed about 1 kg Oxygen 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  18. Engineering Design Details Oxygen Sources 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  19. Engineering Design Details Disinfection • "Rule of Thumb" • UV • 30 mW-sec/cm2 • 10-30 second contact times "Rule of Thumb" Ozone 0.025 and 0.045 kg O3 per kg feed 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  20. Monitoring & System Control Engineering Design Details Monitoring & System Control The most sophisticated monitoring and alarm system is an attentive human operator! 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  21. Monitoring & System Control Engineering Design Details Water Level Local audible alarms for Low and High Water Level Alarm Low Water Level High Water Level Low Water Level 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  22. Engineering Design Details Water Quality Lab Nothing Special- BUT dedicated to Water Quality Anlaysis 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  23. Back-up Systems Loss of Oxygen • More fish are probably lost in recirculation systems due to lack of oxygen than to any other single cause! • A three tier emergency oxygen supply is not an extravagance (Just ask NASA!) normally open, electrically operated solenoid valve 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  24. Aquaponics • Advantages of Aquaponics with RAS systems • Dissolved nutrients recovered by plants • Minmizes water exchange rate • Secondary crop – improves profitability • Disadvantages of Aquaponics with RAS systems • Large ratio of plants area to fish rearing area • New set of skills –’Green Thumb’ • Limits treatment options for both plants and fish 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  25. Aquaponics Hydroponics Water Quality pH Control Calcium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide (Never Baking Soda) Macronutrients (required in relatively large quantities) carbon (C) oxygen (O) hydrogen (H) carbon dioxide gas (CO2) nitrogen (N) potassium (K) calcium (Ca) magnesium (Mg) phosphorus (P) sulfur (S) Micronutrients (required in considerably smaller amounts) chlorine (Cl) iron (Fe) manganese (Mn) boron (B) zinc (Zn) copper (Cu) molybdenum (Mo) 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  26. Aquaponics Hydroponics – NFT System Nelson & Pade, Inc. E&T Farms Aquaponics. Aquaculture Systems Tech., LLC Contienental Organics. 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  27. Aquaponics Hydroponics – Raft System Nelson & Pade, Inc. Friendly Farm Hawaii. Lettuce Factory, Ithica, NY 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  28. Aquaponics Hydroponics – Reciprocating System (flood and drain) To ensure adequate aeration of plant roots, gravel beds are operated in a reciprocating (ebb and flow) mode, where the beds are alternately flooded and drained. 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  29. Engineering Design Details Hydroponics – Raft System Design Crieria: daily feed input/plant growing area (Hydroponics makes up 75% of the system water volume) Raft System: channel (raceway) with a 1 ft depth, usually 4 ft wide covered by a floating sheet of polystyrene ( 4 ft x 8 ft x 1 ½ inches) for plant support. "Rule of Thumb???" 60 to 100 g of fish feed/day m2 of raft area 60 to 90 min water turnover rate Aeration – airstones or diffusers 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  30. Engineering Design Details Hydroponics – NFT System Design Crieria: daily feed input/plant growing area (Hydroponics makes up small fraction of the system water volume) NFT System: shallow flow of water, 1 lpm with 1% slope "Rule of Thumb" Waste Treatment 15-25 g of fish feed/day m2 of raft area 1 lpm for rate 1% slope 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  31. Engineering Design Details Hydroponics – Reciprocating System (flood and drain) Design Crieria: daily feed media volume (Hydroponics makes up small fraction of the system water volume) Volume ratio of 1 ft3 of fish-rearing to 2 ft3 of media "Rule of Thumb" Waste Treatment 1 ft3 of fish fish rearing volume to 2 ft3 of media (1/4 to ½ inch in diameter) 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  32. SBIR 2013 – Aquaponics “Family”Aquaculture Systems Technologies, LLC 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  33. “Home/Student System” 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  34. “Home/Student System” Sump Center Standpipe / Outside Sleeve Tank Stand AirLifts Unions & Rubber Couplings 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  35. “Home/Student System” 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  36. “Mary Queen of Vietnam – New Orleans” 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  37. “Student System” Plus, lots of labor and buy-in by friends and families, plus fish! 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  38. BioPlan & System Conceptual Design • Preliminary design of the Micro-Boutique component: • Weekly production goals: 87 kg (200 lbs) live weight • 4.55 metric tonnes per year (10,000 lbs/yr) • Target size of 750 g (~ 1.6 lb) • Harvested every six weeks • Production Plan: • Fry/quarantine: 4 wks • Two Fingerling Tanks (stocked at six week intervals): 12 wks • Mixed-cell Raceway Growout (four cohorts at six week intervals): 24 weeks • Growout harvested every six weeks ( partial-harvest every 3 weeks) 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  39. RAS Production BioPlan The production BioPlan on a weekly basis: 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  40. Design Process: Fry/Quarantine Single cohorts - Normal growing fraction of the fry heavily culled (25 to 33%) remaining to other markets 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  41. Conceptual Layout: Fry/Quarantine 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  42. Design Process: Fingerling 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  43. Fingerling Pod: Conceptual Layout 8 ft fiberglass tank, 3 ft deep, solids capture is via a propeller-washed bead filter, biofiltration is accomplished with a small Moving Bed BioReactor 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  44. Design Process Growout 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  45. Growout – Mixed-cell Raceways The mixed-cell raceway is 12 ft wide by 36 ft long and 4 ft deep with an HDPE liner. 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  46. Growout Pod: Conceptual Layout The mixed-cell raceway is 12 ft wide by 36 ft long and 4 ft deep with an HDPE liner. Solids capture is accomplished with a PBF-5S Propeller Washed Bead filter and biofiltration with a MBBR. 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  47. Mixed-cell Raceway Advantages Traditional: 3 Tanks: 12 ft diameter x 4 ft deep fiberglass tanks Raceway: Single Raceway: 12 ft x 36 ft x 4 ft deep raceway Traditional: DesignLoading based on final harvest size: 750 g Raceway: Loading based on three size cohorts: 192 g, 410 g, 750 g Traditional: Biomass Density of one of the three Tanks at harvest: 50 kg/m3 Raceway: Biomass Density of Raceway based on three size cohorts: 38 kg/m3 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  48. Mixed-cell Raceway 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  49. Construction Options 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference

  50. Construction Options – Cinder Block 2012 Aquaponics Association Conference