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Every Child Achieving: The ABCs of Addressing the Educational Needs of Children with Learning Disabilities. Nancy Hennessy M.Ed. nhennessy@charter.net ORBIDA Feb. 24, 2007.

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slide1

Every Child Achieving:The ABCs of Addressing the Educational Needs of Children with Learning Disabilities

Nancy Hennessy M.Ed.

nhennessy@charter.net

ORBIDA

Feb. 24, 2007

slide2

Knowledge rich vs. knowledge poor instructionalenvironments in which informed vs. uninformed professional judgmentsguide teaching learning process in reading instruction.How do we get there?

by understanding
By understanding ……………
  • Dyslexia
  • Science of Reading
  • Connection between the Structure of Language and the Science of Reading
  • Need for Continuum of Learning Opportunities
    • Remediation to accommodation……….
learning disabilities can affect a person s ability in the areas of
Learning disabilities can affect a person's ability in the areas of:

dyslexia

  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Mathematics

dyscalculia

dyspraxia

dysgraphia

masks of learning disabilities
Masks of Learning Disabilities
  • Super competence
  • Contempt
  • Victim
  • Perfection
  • Helplessness
  • Outrageousness
  • Good Samaritan
  • Clown
  • Bad behavior
  • Invisibility
  • Not caring

The Masks Students Wear, Sally Smith

statistics
Statistics
  • 60-80% of students with an identified specific learning disability have that disability in the area of reading and language
  • 1 out of every 5-10 students has some degree of dyslexia

National Institute of Health:Child Health and Human Development

dyslexia is
Dyslexia is…..

comprehension

phonological

disability

encoding

unexpected

neurologically

  • a specific learning _________ that is
  • ___________ based and manifested by
  • difficulties with decoding and _______ that are
  • the result of a deficit in the ________component of language
  • and is often______ and
  • secondary consequences may include problems in_________.
what it might look like
What it might look like….
  • Problems with:
    • language development
    • remembering oral language e.g. words and directions
    • letter-sound recall
    • segmenting, blending speech sounds to read words
    • segmenting speech sounds and identifying letters to spell words
    • reading words, phrases, and passages automatically
    • comprehending words, phrases, sentences and passages
slide9

Though she seemed to have an above average vocabulary

for her age, Sarah couldn’t seem to translate it to paper.

It was as if she couldn't learn to read or write.

Sarah’s Mother

What had been a shadowy suspicion that hovered on the edge of consciousness became a certain knowledge the year I was nine and entered fourth grade. I seemed to be like other children, but I was not like them: I could not learn to read or spell.

Eileen (In the Mind’s Eye)

I am a dyslexic and I feel that this learning disability is like a thief in the night. It (dyslexia) never will rob you completely, but rob you just enough to make you work twice as hard to become productive in comparison to other people without this disability.

Adult Dyslexic

slide10

Closing the gap…“If a child is dyslexic early on in school, that child will continue to experience reading problems unless he is provided with scientifically based proven intervention.”Shaywitz, 2003

by understanding1
By understanding ……………
  • Dyslexia
  • Science of Reading
  • Connection between Structure of Language and the Science of Reading
  • Continuum of instructional options
    • Remediation to accommodation……….
research is the only defensible foundation for educational practice
“Research is the only defensible foundation for educational practice.”
  • If not scientific evidence, then what:
    • tradition
    • philosophy
    • superstition
    • anecdote
    • intuition

The Voice of Evidence, 2004

research

Research

“Whether we enter the best of times is dependent on whether or not we use the gifts research has provided wisely or foolishly.”Marzano, 2003

three decades of research
Three Decades of Research…..
  • National Institute of Child and Health Development www.nichd.org
  • National Right to Read Foundation www.nrrf.org
  • Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children- National Research Council www.nationacademies.org/nrc
  • NATIONAL READING PANEL www.nationalreadingpanel.org
  • Reading for Understanding: Toward a R&D Program in Reading Comprehension www.rand.org
  • Institute of Educational Sciences-What Works Clearinghouse www.ed.gov
catalyst for change based on reliable valid and converging evidence
Catalyst for Changebased on reliable, valid and converging evidence

Policy

Reading Excellence Act

NCLB

Reading First

Reauthorization of IDEA

Practice

Curriculum

Assessment

Professional Development

“evidence based practices”

age old questions
Age Old Questions?
  • Are our students learning?
    • If not, why not?
  • Which kids need a nudge?
    • How do we know?
  • How can we intervene?
    • Is it working or not?
    • How do we know?
  • Are there some kids that need a bigger nudge?
    • How can we further intervene?
so who needs the nudge

Emma

Avi

Joseph

So, who needs the nudge?

25-30% at risk

(percentage is higher for poor, minority students)

Jamal

Sally

what does the nudger do
What does the “nudger” do…..
  • Screens K-2 + to identify “at risk” readers
  • Systematically delivers research based instruction initially in general education. Uses a tiered approach to instruction:
    • Core reading program
    • Small group intervention, then for some……
    • Intensive strategic intervention/remediation 1:1 or small group (potentially special education)
  • Measures student response to intervention (progress monitoring)
  • Uses student data to inform instruction
catch them before they fail
Catch them before they fail….

“It takes 4 times as long to intervene in fourth grade as it does in late kindergarten.” NICHD

“One of the most compelling findings from reading research is that children who get off to a poor start in reading rarely catch up.” Torgeson, 1998

slide21

A tiered approach to instruction?

Layers of intervention responding to student needs

TIER I

70-80%

Each tier provides more intensive and supportive intervention

TIER II

10-30%

TIER

III

Aimed at preventing reading disabilities

Dr. Joseph Torgeson, 2004

5-10%

research based instruction
Research Based Instruction
  • phonemic awareness
  • phonics
  • fluency
  • vocabulary
  • text comprehension
  • writing
  • assessment

Put Reading First, The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read, 2001

www.nifl.gov

most powerful instruction torgeson 2005
Most powerful instruction…..Torgeson, 2005
  • More time
  • Smaller group
  • Targeted at right level
  • Provide systematic and explicit instruction in deficient component skills-phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and reading comprehension
  • Clearer, more detailed explanations, more systematic instructional sequence
  • More extensive opportunity for guided practice
  • More opportunity for error corrections and feedback
linnae ehri s phases of word reading letrs
Linnae Ehri’s Phases of Word Reading-LETRS

Mature Alphabetic

Orthographic

reading

fluently

by sound,

syllable,

morpheme,

whole word,

families

and

analogies

early sight

word

learning

Early Alphabetic

letter

knowledge

Logograhic

phoneme-

grapheme

correspondence

incidental

visual cues

partial

phoneme

awareness

complete

phoneme

awareness

by understanding2
By understanding ……………
  • Dyslexia
  • Science of Reading
  • Connection between Structure of Language and the Science of Reading
  • Continuum of Learning Opportunities
    • Remediation to accommodation……….
the structure of language
The structure of language….
  • Phonology
  • Morphology
  • Orthography
  • Semantics
  • Syntax
  • Discourse and pragmatics
  • Etymology

no clue

know that word but...

own it

the sound factory

The Sound Factory

Phonology

Phonological awareness

slide29

Phonological

Processing

Verbal short

term

memory

Rapid

serial naming

Phonological

awareness

Articulation

speed

Phonemic

awareness

Word awareness

Syllable

awareness

Uhry, 2005

phonological awareness

Phonological awareness

“attending to, thinking about and manipulating the individual phonemes within spoken words and syllables.”

(Brady & Scarborough, 2003)

“ability to manipulate and play with sounds”

five levels of difficulty an instructional sequence adams 1990
Five levels of difficulty, an instructional sequence…Adams, 1990
  • Sensitivity to rhyme
  • Recognition of patterns of rhyme and alliteration in words
  • Partial phoneme segmentation-syllable splitting and onset-rime
  • Full Phoneme segmentation
  • Phoneme manipulation

Let's exercise our ph awareness

instruction
Morning news

Poetry, songs, jingles

Language themes/embed

teach explicitly

use a sequence

teach as an oral activity working toward using letters to represent sounds as segmentation is mastered

15 minutes……..

Instruction
sound letter factory

Sound+ Letter Factory

Phonology

Orthography

Morphology

Phonics

Advanced Phonics

phonics

Phonics

“learning of letter-sound associations used for reading and spelling.”(Gillon, 2004)

slide36

Decoding-Spelling Continuum

Compounds

ABC

Consonants

Vowels

Latin

Greek

Prefixes/

Suffixes

PA

Sounds

Syllables

Patterns

Fluency

Marcia Henry, 2003

vowels
Vowels
  • Vacation came on a rainy day/ so eight reindeer would not obey.
  • He needs meat and candy./ These I believe he will receive for his money.
  • I like to be under the night sky/ to eat my pie in style.
  • Go home on a boat/ and show a shoulder and toe.
  • Soon the new ruby in June/ will fit you. The blue suit is neutral.
effective instruction
Effective instruction…….
  • Systematic
  • Explicit
  • Provides opportunity to practice and apply learning (letters and sounds to reading of words)

PFR

www.nifl.org

the meaning factory

The Meaning Factory

Semantics

Vocabulary

Comprehension

semantic map moats 2003
Semantic Map(Moats, 2003)

target word

antonyms

synonyms

definition

More

examples

Other

categories

multiple

meanings

Linguistic structure

phonemes

syllables

morphemes

spelling patterns

connotation

Personal experiences

Idioms

Specific texts

sometimes

confused

with

what is vocabulary
Receptive

listening

reading

Expressive

speaking

writing

No clue

Heard it but don’t know it means

Recognize it, know it t has something to do with____

Own it

What is vocabulary?

storehouse of word meanings

beck s tiers of words
Beck’s Tiers of Words

3: Used Infrequently

Limited to Specific Domains

Words have different utilities. Suggested goal of

400 Tier 2 words per year.

Tier 3

[7,000 Word Families]

Tier 2

Tier 1: Most Familiar Words

Need No

Instruction

[ 8,000 Word

Families ]

Tier 1

characteristics of tier 2 words
Characteristics of Tier 2 Words
  • sophisticated

ordinary words for mature language users

generous vs. nice

  • high utility

useful across many contexts

devour vs. ingest

  • conceptually appropriate

students understand general concepts but lack precision and specificity

anxious vs. sultry

instructional guidelines
Instructional Guidelines
  • Provide a context
  • Build a student friendly definition
  • Provide examples beyond context of the story
  • Interact with words
  • Reinforce use beyond class

(adapted from Beck, 2002)

“To have an impact on comprehension, vocabulary instruction must be rich-simply defining words is not enough.”

Beck, 2002

the meaning factory1

The Meaning Factory

SyntaxDiscourse

Comprehension

sentence comprehension some observations
Sentence Comprehension-some observations
  • Essential to forming accurate concepts (understanding of whole)
  • Two critical areas are sentence structure (simple, compound, complex) and cohesive ties
  • Normally achieving readers gain ability to understand and use increasingly complex syntactical patterns while poor readers lag behind

“Children who perform well on grammatical awareness tasks tend to be better able to monitor accuracy of reading.”

Carlisle, 2001

narrative expository
Purpose is to entertain

Consistent text structure

Focus on character’s/goals

Requires multiple perspectives

Connective words not as critical-and, then, so

Text can stand alone

Purpose is to inform

Variable text structure

Focus on facts, ideas

Perspective of author

Connective words critical-because, if-then, before

Integration of information across texts

Narrative Expository
slide49
“Text comprehension can be improved by instruction that helps readers use specific comprehension strategies.”
  • recognizing story structure
  • using graphic and semantic organizers
  • summarizing
  • answering questions
  • generating questions
  • monitoring comprehension
effective comprehension strategy instruction is explicit or direct
“Effective comprehension strategy instruction is explicit or direct.”
  • direct explanation
  • modeling
  • guided practice
  • application

www.nifl.org

fluency

Fluency

Ability to read quickly, effortlessly and with expression

“The ability to read connected text rapidly, smoothly and effortlessly with little attention to mechanics of reading such as decoding.”

(Meyers & Felton, 1999)

instruction1
Instruction
  • Modeling
  • Repeated reading with guidance
  • Monitoring progress
by understanding3
By understanding ……………
  • Dyslexia
  • Science of Reading
  • Connection between Structure of Language and the Science of Reading
  • Continuum of Learning Opportunities
    • Remediation to accommodation……….
remediation multisensory structured language programs
Phonology and

Phonological Awareness

Sound-Symbol Association

Syllable Instruction

Morphology

Syntax

Semantics

Simultaneous, Multisensory

Systematic and Cumulative

Direct Instruction

Diagnostic Teaching

Synthetic and Analytic Instruction

Remediation“multisensory structured language programs”
slide56

Effective teachers…“Research has shown that teachers who are most effective at including students with disabilities and other diverse learning needs are also generally effective classroom teachers.” (Mastropieri et al, 1998)

classroom instruction that works marzano et al 2001 ascd
Classroom Instruction That Works Marzano et al, 2001ASCD
  • Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
  • Strategic instruction
  • Nonlinguistic representation
  • Questions, cues and advance organizers
  • Summarizing and note-taking
  • Cooperative learning
  • Homework and practice
  • Getting objectives and providing feedback
  • Generating and testing hypotheses
  • Identifying similarities and difference
study skills and learning strategies defined
Study Skills and Learning Strategies Defined

A systematic plan for:

acquiring

obtaining

inputting

storing

organizing

processing

expressing

outputting

applying

slide59

They are……reflective practitionersflexibleunderstand individualizationcaringopen to natural supportsfairnessAdapted Bauer & Kroeger,2004

slide60

Accomodations

Services

Supports

Adaptations

Modifications

Instructional Tools

compensatory tools assistive technology
Compensatory toolsAssistive technology
  • Word processing software
  • Voice recognition software
  • Text to speech software
  • Presentation software
  • Organizing ideas software
  • Electronic organizers
slide63

Knowledge rich vs. knowledge poor instructionalenvironments in which informed vs. uninformed professional judgmentsguide teaching learning process in reading instruction.How do we get there?

slide64

Then she went into the living room and found the book on the shelf, the very book, that her grandpa had shown her so many years ago. She spooned honey on the cover and tasted the sweetness, and said to herself, “The honey is sweet, and so is knowledge, but the knowledge is like the bee who made the honey, it has to be chased through the pages of the book!”Thank You, Mr. FalkerP. Polacco

by understanding4
By understanding ……………
  • Dyslexia
  • Science of Reading
  • Connection between the Structure of Language and the Science of Reading
  • Need for Continuum of Learning Opportunities
    • Remediation to accommodation……….
thank you

Thank you!!!!

nhennessy@charter.net

personal picks
Personal Picks

General

Moats, L.(2005). Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Research

  • McCardle, P. & Chhabra, V. The Voice of Evidence in Reading Research (2004). Baltimore: Paul Brookes.
  • Learning Disabilities Roundtable. (2005, February). Comments and recommendations on regulatory issues under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, Public Law 108-446.
  • Lyon, G. R., Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Torgesen, J. K., Wood, F., et al. (200l). Rethinking learning disabilities. In C. E. Finn Jr., A. J. Rotherham, & C. R. Hokanson Jr. (Eds.), Rethinking Special Education for a New Century(pp. 259–287). Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Foundation. l
  • National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. (2005). Responsiveness to Intervention and Learning Disabilities. www.interdys.org
slide68
Phonological Awareness
  • Gillon, G. Phonological Awareness: From Research to Practice (2004). New York: The Guilford Press
  • Torgesen, J.K., & Mathes, P. (2000). A Basic Guide to Understanding, Assessing, and Teaching Phonological Awareness. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Dyslexia and MSL Instruction

  • Birsh, J. (2005). Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills (2nd Ed). Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.
  • Cunningham, A.E. & Stanovich, K.E. (1998). What reading does for the mind. American Educator, 22(Spring/Summer), 8-15.
  • Gough, P. B. (1996). How children learn to read and why they fail. Annals of Dyslexia, 46, 3-20.
  • Joshi, M. (2004) Dyslexia: Myths, Misconceptions and Some Practical Applications. Baltimore, MD: International Dyslexia Association.
  • Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming Dyslexia. New York: Alfred A. Knopf
slide69
Decoding and Spelling
  • Moats, L., Speech to Print. (2000), Baltimore. MD: Paul Brookes Publishing.
  • Henry, M., Unlocking Literacy (2003). Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes Publishing.
  • Juel, C., & Minden-Cupp, C. (2000). Learning to read words: Linguistic units and instructional strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 35, 458-492.

Fluency

  • Torgesen, J.K., Rashotte, C.A., Alexander, A. (2001). Principles of fluency instruction in reading: Relationships with established empirical outcomes. In M. Wolf (Ed. ), Dyslexia, Fluency, and the Brain. Parkton, MD: York Press.
slide70
Vocabulary
  • Baumann, J. & Ed Kameenui, E. (2002). Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Beck, I. & McKeown, M. (2002). Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Graves, M.F. Vocabulary Book (2006).New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Hart, B. & Risley, T.R. (1995) Meaningful Differences. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.

Comprehension

  • Beck, I. Et al. (1998). Getting at the meaning. American Educator, Summer, 66-71
  • Carlisle, J. & ice, M. (2002) Improving Reading Comprehension: Research-Based Principles and Practices. Baltimore: York Press.
  • Reading for Understanding: Toward An R&D program in Reading Comprehension. Rand Reading Study Group: Rand Education, 2000.
resources
Resources
  • www.ldonline.org
  • www.schwablearning.org
  • www.interdys.org
  • www.ncld.org
  • www.rfbd.org
  • www.sparktop.org
curriculum programs
Curriculum, programs…………………
  • IDA Matrix-www.interdys.org
  • Alliance-www.the alliance.org
  • AOGPE-www.ortonacademy.org
  • www.fcrr
  • www.uoregon.edu