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  1. RTI & Learning Supports: Addressing Barriers to Learning & Teaching and Re-engaging Disconnected Students UCLA

  2. We just missed the school bus. \ Don’t worry. I heard the principal say \ no child will be left behind. / UCLA

  3. In the accompanying handouts we have included more than we cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time. Feel free to use any handout as is or by adapting them. UCLA

  4. Topics to be Covered • Urban Schools: Can Teachers Go it Alone? A Big Picture View of Why They Shouldn’t Be Asked to Do So • What Teachers Can Do to Enable Learning UCLA

  5. Topics In discussing what teachers can do to enable learning, we will emphasize: (A) Using Response to Intervention as an Opportunity to Work With Others (B) Pursuing Response to Intervention Sequentially and Effectively (C) Understanding and Applying Intrinsic Motivation • Pursuing Teaching as One Strategy in a Comprehensive System of Student and Learning Supports UCLA

  6. I. Urban Schools: Can Teachers Go it Alone? A Big Picture View of Why They Shouldn’t be Asked to Do So UCLA

  7. <><><><><><><><><> The current focus of school improvement policy and practice is too limited to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed at school. <><><><><><><><><> UCLA

  8. The limited focus contributes to: • High Student Dropout Rates UCLA

  9. The limited focus contributes to: • High Student Dropout Rates • High Teacher Dropout Rates UCLA

  10. The limited focus contributes to: • High Student Dropout Rates • High Teacher Dropout Rates • Continuing Achievement Gap UCLA

  11. The limited focus contributes to: • High Student Dropout Rates • High Teacher Dropout Rates • Continuing Achievement Gap • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing UCLA

  12. The limited focus contributes to: • High Student Dropout Rates • High Teacher Dropout Rates • Continuing Achievement Gap • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing • High Stakes Testing Taking its Toll on Students UCLA

  13. The limited focus contributes to: • High Student Dropout Rates • High Teacher Dropout Rates • Continuing Achievement Gap • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing • High Stakes Testing Taking its Toll on Students • Plateau Effect UCLA

  14. Some of the data: The dropout rate for our nation remains unacceptably high. In 2006, the Education Trust reported that nearly 25 percent of the ninth grade population will not end up graduating from high school. UCLA

  15. Some of the data: Take reading levels as an example. Despite reports of small recent gains, most American students, across grade levels, are reading at the most basic levels and “only about 30 percent of high school students read proficiently and more than a quarter read below grade level.” UCLA

  16. Data from the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) clearly shows the plateau effect related to academic achievement. UCLA

  17. Three Lenses for Viewing School Improvement Efforts in Urban Schools UCLA

  18. Lens #1 = All Students Not just some students– ALL youngsters are to have an equal opportunity to succeed at school UCLA

  19. ALL Students as Learners Range of Learners Motivationally ready and able Not very motivated/ lacking prerequisite skills/ different rates & styles/ minor vulnerabilities Avoidant/ very deficient in capabilities

  20. Lens #2 = Barriers to Learning and School Improvement Range of Learners Instructional Component Classroom Teaching + Enrichment Activity I = Motivationally ready and able Not very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II = skills/ different rates & styles/ minor vulnerabilities III = Avoidant/ very deficient in capabilities No barriers Desired Outcomes (High Expectations & Accountability) Barriers To Learning, Development, Teaching (High Standards) UCLA

  21. Appreciating the Full Range of Barriers to Learning and School Improvement – For most students, it’s more about • Environmental Conditions • Neighborhood • Family • School and Peers than about • Individual deficits And, of course, a holistic approach emphasizes >Protective Buffers (strengths, resiliency) >Promoting Full Development

  22. Examples of EnvironmentalConditions • extreme economic deprivation • community disorganization, including high levels of mobility • violence, drugs, etc. • minority and/or immigrant status UCLA

  23. Examples of Family Conditions • chronic poverty • conflict/disruptions/violence • substance abuse • models problem behavior • abusive caretaking • inadequate provision for quality child care UCLA

  24. Examples of School & Peer Conditions • poor quality school • negative encounters with teachers • negative encounters with peers • inappropriate peer models UCLA

  25. Examples of Individual Conditions • medical problems • low birth weight/neurodevelopmental delay • psychophysiological problems • difficult temperament & adjustment problems • inadequate nutrition UCLA

  26. Caution: Don’t let anyone misinterpret the term >Barriers to learning It encompasses much more than a deficit model of students. UCLA

  27. And, it is part of a holistic approach that emphasizes the importance of >Protective Buffers (e.g., strengths, assets, resiliency, accommodations) & >Promoting Full Development UCLA

  28. Lens # 3 = Engagement & Disengagement Source of Motivation Extrinsics Intrinsics Intrinsics/ Extrinsics Engagement Intervention Concerns Disengagement (psychological reactance) Avoiding Over-reliance on Extrinsics, Maximizing Intrinsic Motivation, Minimizing Behavioral Control Strategies UCLA

  29. Engaging & Re-engaging Students in Classroom Learning It’s time to pay greater attention to how schools >maximize Intrinsic Motivation >minimize Behavior Control Strategies >re-engage Disconnected Students >sustain Teacher Motivation UCLA

  30. Brief Activity Picture students who do not come to school motivated and ready to learn. Then, • Using the three lenses, jot down what you think urban schools are doing to: (1) Address barriers to learning (2) Re-engage disconnected students

  31. In addressing barriers to learning & re-engaging disconnected students Are Teachers Going it Alone? UCLA

  32. What we see around the country Psychological Testing Clinic After-School Programs HIV/Aids Prevention Pupil Services Health Services Violence & Crime Prevention Student & Learning Supports Physical Education Special Education Health Education Nutrition Education Juvenile Court Services District School Lunch Program Community-Based Organizations Drug Prevention Counseling Mental Health Services Drug Services Social Services Pregnancy Prevention Codes of Discipline Smoking Cessation For Staff HIV/AIDS Services Child Protective Services UCLA

  33. The Problems with Student & Learning Supports Current situation at all levels in the educational system with respect to student/learning supports is that the efforts are Marginalized in school improvement policy and practice. This leads to: • Fragmentation • Poor cost-effectiveness (up to 25% of a school budget used in too limited and often redundant ways) • Counterproductive competition for sparse resources (among school support staff and with community-based professionals who link with schools)

  34. Whythe Marginalization? How school improvement policy and practice addresses barriers to learning and teaching Direct Facilitation of Learning & Development Safe schools & Some Student & FamilyAssistance Besides offering a small amount of school-owned student "support” services, schools outreach to the community to add a few school-based / linked services. Instructional / Developmental Component Management Component Governance and Resource Management

  35. Clearly, there are some supports; what’s missing is a dedicated, unified, and comprehensive component directly focused on: (1) addressing barriers to learning & teaching AND (2) re-engaging students who have become disconnected from classroom instruction

  36. The need is to move from the prevailing two-component framework to a three-component framework in order to develop a Unified and Comprehensive System of Learning Supports Addressing Barriers to Learning/Teaching (Enabling or Learning Supports Component) Direct Facilitation of Learning (Instructional Component) Examples of Initiatives, programs and services that belong under the umbrella >positive behavioral supports >programs for safe and drug free schools >bi-lingual, cultural, and other diversity programs >compensatory education programs >family engagement programs >special education programs >mandates stemming from the No Child Left Behind Act & other federal programs Governance and Resource Management (Management Component) UCLA

  37. Activity: Discuss what you think teachers at urban schools would answer if asked what proportion of their students show up each day motivationally ready and able to do what the teacher has planned to teach that day. Then, discuss: Why are so many students not motivationally ready and able? After your discussion, enjoy a break.

  38. UCLA

  39. Some matters that work against dealing effectively with addressing barriers to learning and teaching

  40. II. What Teachers Can Do to Enable Learning A. Use Response to Intervention as an Opportunity to Work With Others B. Pursue Response to Intervention Sequentially and Effectively C. Understand and Apply Intrinsic Motivation D. Pursue Teaching as One Strategy in a Comprehensive System of Student and Learning Supports UCLA

  41. A. Using Response to Intervention as an Opportunity to Work With Others UCLA

  42. Using RTI to Enable Learning • What is a Broadened View of RTI? • Inviting Assistance into the Classroom • Promoting a Positive School and Classroom Climate • Redesigning Classroom Strategies UCLA

  43. (2) Personalization is Fundamental to RTI and Goes Beyond Individualization UCLA

  44. B. Pursuing Response to Intervention Sequentially and Effectively UCLA

  45. Needed: An Integrated Sequence of Interventions that Includes a Comprehensive System of Learning Supports Promoting learning & Healthy Development plus Prevention of Problems (System of Prevention) as necessary Intervening as early after onset of problems as is feasible (System of Early Intervention) as necessary Specialized assistance for those with severe, pervasive, or chronic problems (System of Care) UCLA

  46. Instruction Sequence and Levels for RTI Step 1. Personalizing Instruction Add Step 2 as necessary Step 2. Special assistance* >for students who continue to have problems; >maintained only as long as needed UCLA