Bread and hot rolls
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Bread and Hot Rolls. Lesson Objectives. Identify and explain the functions of the primary ingredients for yeast dough. Understanding the differences of a lean and rich dough. Introduce a straight and sponge dough method.

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Lesson objectives
Lesson Objectives

  • Identify and explain the functions of the

    primary ingredients for yeast dough.

  • Understanding the differences of a lean and

    rich dough.

  • Introduce a straight and sponge dough


  • Ability to explain the preparation process

    for dough to include raising, scaling,

    rounding, benching and proofing.

  • Able to discuss the proper baking of yeast dough

    and the handling and storage of baked breads.



In order to properly prepare bread and hot rolls, it is necessary to understand the basic ingredients and how the finished product outcome depends on the proper procedures followed in preparation.

Each ingredient plays an important role in contributing to the flavor and texture of the finished product.


Bread ingredients
Bread Ingredients

  • Flours

  • Water

  • Salt

  • Yeast

  • Sugar

  • Shortening

  • Milk

  • Eggs

  • Spice and Flavorings


Flour Types

  • Bread wheat flour - referred to as “strong/hard wheat flour.”

  • All purpose flour – normally used for all-around cooking but will produce a satisfactory loaf.

  • Special flours such as rye, corn, barley, graham, sot bean, rice and buckwheat can be used in combination with white or whole wheat flour to produce a variety of flavor and texture when making breads. Alone, special flours lack the sufficient gluten to produce a quality bread product.

  • Rye flour - medium color rye is available for Navy use.




  • Determines consistency of dough (elasticity) and gas retaining properties.

  • Regulates dough temperature during mixing.

  • Dissolves salt and sugar and aids in distributing these ingredients uniformly throughout the dough.

  • Enzymes act on flour and yeast to cause fermentation.


Water continued
Water (continued)

  • Undesirable effect may occur when soft water is used. Add the proper amount of dough conditioner (or mineral yeast food). Soft water makes a soft, sticky dough because gluten is weak.

  • Hard water effects may be corrected by boiling or adding vinegar. Hard water makes the gluten too firm to be elastic. In this base the gas formed in the dough cannot expand to produce good bread.

  • In some bread recipes potato water or milk can be used to replace water. Milk produces a richer bread with a tender crust, and less grainy taste.


Bread and hot rolls


  • Controls fermentation.

  • Large amounts of salt kills the yeast and no

    fermentation occurs.

  • Small amounts promote faster fermentation.

  • No salt - finished product is coarse.

  • Strengthens and tightens the gluten making the dough more elastic.

  • Critical to the texture, flavor and color of the bread and whitens the crumbs by producing bread to a finer cell structure.



  • Microscopic one celled plant.

    • Found everywhere in nature where sugar is present and aids in the process of fermentation.

  • Types used in the Army

    • Active dry

  • Functions

    • Leaving agent

    • Fermentation

    • CO2 and alcohol are produced

    • Effects depend upon amount used and temperature of the water.


Yeast foods dough conditioners
Yeast Foods (Dough Conditioners)

  • Major purpose

    • To condition the water

    • To assist in the proper fermentation of the dough

  • The use of yeast food is often determined by the strength of the flour and fermentation period required.


Yeast foods dough conditioners1
Yeast Foods (Dough Conditioners)

Yeast foods contain three types of functional ingredients:

  • Ammonium salts - to supply yeast with a supply of nitrogen for growth

  • Calcium salts - to produce the correct amount of hardness in dough water and to firm the gluten

  • An oxidizing agent - to give a firmer, less sticky dough



  • Type

    • Refined granulated sugar

  • Functions

    • Flavor

    • Color

  • Characteristics change when heated

    • Tenderizer

    • Taste

    • Feeds the yeast



  • Type – Hydrogenated (solid)

  • Functions

    • Provides volume

    • Freshness

    • Flavor

    • Texture

    • Color, depending upon sugar content


Bread and hot rolls

  • Type - Conventional non-fat dry milk

  • Functions

    • Provides volume

    • Flavor

    • Texture

    • Color

    • Sugar content


Bread and hot rolls

  • Type

    • Shell eggs

    • Frozen whole eggs (bakery type)

    • Dehydrated eggs

  • Provides

    • Richness

    • Flavor

    • Improved texture


Spices and flavors
Spices and Flavors

  • Function

    • Adds flavor or variety to the baked product

    • Too much may retard fermentation


Lean and rich dough
Lean and Rich Dough

Lean Dough

  • Bread formulas and yeast raised products that contain few or no enriching ingredients.

    Rich Dough

  • Bread formulas and yeast raised products that use a high percentage of ingredients like eggs, fats, and sugars

Formulas for bread and yeast raised products
Formulas for bread and yeast raised products

Straight dough method

  • Combine yeast with a portion of water

  • Remainder of water, salt, sugar and non-fat dry milk is placed in a mixing bowl

  • Flour is added and mixed one minute

  • Yeast solution is added and mixed for one minute

  • Shortening is added last and mixed 10 to 15 minutes until dough is smooth and elastic.

  • Proceed with the steps of rising, punching, folding, benching and forming the dough.


Formulas for bread and yeast raised products cont d
Formulas for bread and yeast raised products (cont’d)

Sponge dough method

  • Yeast is dissolved with full amount of liquid adding a part of the sugar and flour, mixing to a thick batter/very soft dough

  • The yeast dough is covered and allowed to ferment until double in size

  • The yeast dough is then punched and the rest of the ingredients added to form a smooth dough

  • The bread dough is now ready for fermentation (Fermenting dough for 5 – 6 hours at 75° or lower improves the flavor and texture of your final bread product)

  • Proceed with the steps of rising, punching, folding, benching and forming the dough.

Bread production
Bread Production

Combining ingredients

  • Yeast is suspended in water at about 105-110° F.

  • Shortening should be held back for a few minutes or until the flour has become wet.

  • Not a good practice to add shortening to dry flour because of the waterproofing effect.


Dough temperature during mixing
Dough Temperature During Mixing

  • Use water to control the dough temperature

  • Use water to regulate the temperature to offset any adverse temperature

  • Sometimes it is necessary to use ice to lower the water temperature sufficiently in order to control the dough temperature


Mixing the dough
Mixing the Dough


  • Agitate the mass until all the ingredients are dispersed evenly.

  • Stretch the mass until the gluten is formed and distributed as widely and as evenly as possible.

  • Dough temperature after mixing should be between 78-82° F.


Fermentation period
Fermentation Period

  • Set aside for a period of time according to the AFRS for conditioning and allowing the dough to ferment.

  • Fermentation occurs best at about 80°

  • Relative humidity should be about 78%.

  • The rise of the dough is dependent on the type of yeast used, fat content, and temperature

  • The fermentation room should be maintained at 80-85° degrees and relative humidity at 74-78%


Fermentation period cont d
Fermentation Period (cont’d)

Changes during fermentation:

  • Sugar is converted to serve as food for the yeast

  • Starches are converted into sugar

  • Produces CO2 and alcohol

  • Enzyme proteins cause the gluten to become soft and stretchable

  • As the dough ferments, acidity is developed in the dough, which also helps give it the ability to stretch


Fermentation period cont d1
Fermentation Period (cont’d)

Fermentation effects need to be balanced

  • Over fermentation causes sticky dough, pale crust color and poor shape

  • Be sensitive to the development of too much acid

  • A reduction of sugar may be necessary


Fermentation period cont d2
Fermentation Period (cont’d)

Factors effecting the speed of fermentation

  • Amount of yeast - 1-1/2 to 3%

  • Higher yeast content - faster fermentation

  • Increasing salt slows fermentation

  • Decreasing salt speeds fermentation


Fermentation period cont d3
Fermentation Period (cont’d)

Proof-box temperatures

  • During the critical stage, called the proofing stage

  • Room or cabinet temperature should be about 80° F.

  • Length of proofing time should be 50-75 minutes

  • If humidity is determined by a wet and dry bulb thermometer, the spread should be about 6° degrees F.


Relative humidity
Relative Humidity

Amount of moisture in the air in comparison with the total moisture the air is capable of holding.


Final dough temperature
Final Dough Temperature

Temperature of the dough, when it goes to makeup, should be 6 - 7 degrees higher


Makeup of dough for loaves follow afrs
Makeup of Dough for Loaves (follow AFRS)

Divided into uniform pieces

  • Must be the same weight

    Rounding the dough

  • Rounded for intermediate proof by tucking in the raw edges and forming a round piece of dough


Intermediate proof
Intermediate Proof

  • The rounded pieces of dough is allowed to rest between the time the dough is divided and rounded and the time it is formed for panning.

  • Requires 12 -15 minutes.

  • Advantages of intermediate proof:

    • Achievement of uniform shape

    • Facilitates panning

    • Makes texture uniform

    • Stretches gluten slowly

    • Expel excess gas

    • Forms a skin on the surface of the dough


Molding and panning
Molding and Panning


  • Pieces of dough are shaped so that they can rise in the pan and form a shaped loaf of bread.

    Pan Greasing

  • Purpose - to prevent the bread from sticking.

  • Avoid too much grease.


Pan proofing the loaves
Pan Proofing the Loaves

  • Touch the loaf lightly with one finger tip and press slightly

  • If an impression made by the tip of the finger remains - the loaf is proofed

  • If the loaf is still too tight and compact, it should be proofed for an additional period of time



  • The oven temperature and the time required depends on size and shape of the loaf

  • Effects of baking

    • Low oven temperature - opens the grain of the loaf

    • Too high oven temperature - loaf may burst in a rather violent manner

  • Use of steam

    • Steam of low pressure - under 10 lbs

    • Excess steam is objectionable - produces a shiny tougher crust


Cooling of baked loaves
Cooling of Baked Loaves

  • When the internal temperature reaches 208 - 210° F., the bread is done.

  • Place on bread racks at least 1” apart for cooling.

  • Cooling usually takes 1-1/2 to 2 hours.

  • Cool in areas free from drafts.


Storing and serving
Storing and Serving

  • Store under conditions that will not dry the bread and where temperatures are cool.

  • Bread will remain fresh when stored in a cool place and in a plastic wrapped bags up to 96 hours.

  • Bread will remain fresh for extended periods of time when stored frozen in plastic wrap or bags.


Short time formula
Short Time Formula

  • Developed to meet a critical areas with limited bakery space.

  • Eliminates both intermediate proof and the final loaf-molding operation.

  • Batch production time may be reduced from a normal period of 5-6 hours to 2-2.5 hours for a standard bread formula.

  • The baker can roll the rounded pieces into a sausage shape and pan.

  • Short-time formula is most useful during constrained operating conditions.


Rope and mold development in breads
Rope and Mold Development in Breads

  • Rope - an infection of bread caused by the development of spores of a specific type.

  • Mold - a spore that infects bread under certain conditions of temperature and humidity.

  • It is most important that the storage of the bread be planned so that no more than 48 hours lapse before being consumed.


Hot roll production
Hot Roll Production

Production of bread rolls

  • Less mixing is required.

  • Dough is usually softer.

  • Richer formula.

  • Fat and sugar content

  • General Purpose Flour


Variety bread productions
Variety Bread Productions

  • Rye

  • Whole wheat

  • Raisin bread

  • French bread

  • Hot dog buns

  • Hamburger buns


Directions for hot roll production
Directions for Hot Roll Production

  • Steps are the same as those for bread production.

  • Fermentation - depends on the amount of yeast and sugar used.

  • Scaling and shaping - constitutes the major steps in production.

  • Proofing - proofing time is very critical.

  • Following points should be controlled:

    • Volume - until it is almost doubled

    • Oven proofing - blistered on the surface and flattened.


Special hot roll production processes
SpecialHot Roll Production Processes

Short-time roll formula

  • Prepare 1-1/2 white bread recipe (D-9)

  • Two variations of hot roll:

    • Wheat type rolls

    • Brown and serve rolls


Hard rolls
Hard Rolls

  • Must be thoroughly fermented or well aged.

  • Strong flour is necessary.

  • Varieties:

    • Round

    • French

    • Seed

  • Bagels

    • Follow directions from AFRS for makeup, proofing and baking.



  • What are the basic ingredients of bread?

  • What the function of yeast in bread?

  • What is the temperature of dough after mixing?

  • What is being produced during fermentation?

  • What can be used to control dough temperature?

  • High oven temperature will cause the loaf of bread to do what?


Test for lesson
Test for Lesson

  • What ingredient substitute will give bread a tender crust?

  • What function does salt effect?

  • What type of yeast does the US Navy use?

  • Name one of the five functions of shortening in bread.

  • How do you activate yeast?

  • What temperature should bread dough be after mixing?


Test for lesson1
Test for Lesson

  • What type of gas is produced during fermentation?

  • Before panning the rounded pieces of dough how long should they be allowed to rest?

  • What determines temperature and time when baking bread?

  • How long will bread last when stored in a cool dry place and in plastic bags?

  • What is Rope?

  • What is Mold?


Test for lesson2
Test for Lesson

Turn in Answer Sheet now.