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Challenges of Multiculturalism in Europe. Jagellonian University 9 May 2005 Laura Laubeova Structure of the lecture. Definitions: multiculturalism, race ethnicity, minority, Concepts & theories of MC State policies vs. Minority requirements

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Challenges of multiculturalism in europe l.jpg
Challenges of Multiculturalism in Europe

Jagellonian University

9 May 2005

Laura Laubeova

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Structure of the lecture

  • Definitions: multiculturalism, race ethnicity, minority,

  • Concepts & theories of MC

  • State policies vs. Minority requirements

  • Politics of redistribution / recognition

  • Ethnocultural justice

  • Concept of Racisms, discrimination

  • From assimilation to inclusion

  • Antidiscrimination in EU, institutional racism in UK

Background l.jpg

  • Amsterdam Treaty (Article 13)

  • two Directives (2000/43/EC, 2000/78/EC)

  • European Framework Convention for protection of national minorities (FCNM)


    i.e. framework for public policies

    promoting positive interethnic relations, elimination of discrimination and racism.

  • Retreat of MC after 9/11

After 9 11 l.jpg
After 9/11

Failure of MCP?

Baubock (2005): 3 elements of MC

  • Constitutionally entrenched rights

    HR as trumps over majority preferences (Dworkin)

  • Accommodationist policies

    bilingual edu for immig. General integration not a minority right

  • Shared public identity

    equal membersip in polity, citizenship

M ulticulturalism l.jpg

  • Descriptive

  • Normative- see bellow

  • Government policy

    (Canada, Australia)

  • Institutional policies

    (UK – racial equality, CERES)

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Definitions related to ethnicity

From ethnic category to concepts of ethnic community.

“Ethnie“ is

a named human population with myths of common ancestry, shared historical memories,

one or more elements of common culture, a link with a homeland,

a sense of solidarity among at least some members.

- covers both majority and minority population.


multiple identities,

situational (transcending) ethnicities,


Ethnicity 2 basic 3 complementary approaches l.jpg
Ethnicity2 basic + 3 complementary approaches:

1. Primordialists

focus on primordial ties ( but static naturalist, ethnic id. overlapping with other types of id.)

Sociobiologists - mechanisms of nepotism and inclusive fitness based on genetic reproductive capacity (reductionism)

2. Instrumentalists

Symbols for political goals, rational choices. Socially constructed nature of ethnicity.

But neglect wider cultural environment, affective and collective dimensions. Interests only in material terms.

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Approaches to ethnicity – cont.

3. Transactionalists

Frederick Barth – social boundaries, ascribed ethnicity

4. Social psychological

Horowitz, Tajfel

5. Ethno-symbolists

Myths& symbols. nostalgia… AD Smith, Armstrong

(Hutchinson, Smith: Introduction)

See alsoCornell,Hartmann:

Circumstantialists vs Primordialists

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  • Biology & natural sciences – no longer since late 70´s (see researches in genetics bellow)

  • Race remains a legitimate concept for sociological analysis because social actors treat is as real and organise their lives and practices by reference to it (van den Berghe)

  • Robert Miles: race is only an ideological construct that is used by social scientists for legitimising the status quo

  • D. Mason : “Clearly there are no such things as races. Yet it is equally clear that large numbers of people behave as if there are”

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Race – cont.

Mason:„race is a social relationship in which structural positions and social actions are ordered, justified, and explained by reference to systems of symbols and beliefs which emphasise the social and cultural relevance of biologically rooted characteristics“.

  • In other words, the social relationship race presumes the existence of racism and institutional racism.

    Rose, Steven, Lewontin, Richard, Kamin, Leon (1990) Not In Our Genes. Biology, ideology and human nature, London: Penguin Books

    Stephen Gould (1996)The Mismeasure of Man

    Ellis Cashmore (1996) Dictionary of race and thnic relations

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Preamble of the EU Race Directive

“The European Union rejects theories which attempt to determine the existence of separate human races. The use of the term "racial origin" in this Directive does not imply an acceptance of such theories”.

Race is a social construct, i.e. a category without any biological underpinning

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Race vs ethnicity

  • Race is often treated as ideology

    • ethnicity as a real phenomenon.

  • Racial refers mainly to physical terms,

    • ethnic rather to cultural terms.

  • Race refers to them,

    • ethnicity to us.

  • Both concepts always imply social relationship.

  • Minority l.jpg

    ”group of people distinguished by physical or cultural characteristics

    subject do different and unequal treatment by the society in which they live

    and who regard themselves as victims of collective discrimination“

    1945 Louis Wirth

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    Minority - cont.

    • must be a 'nondominant' group;

    • its members must 'possess ethnic, religious or linguistic characteristics differing from those of the rest of the population‚

    • must also 'show, if only implicitly, a sense of solidarity, directed towards preserving their culture, traditions, religion or language'

      (Capotorti as quoted from MRG)

    • Also nondominant groups that may be a numerical majority in a state,

    • those who are not necessarily nationals or citizens of the state where they reside.


    Multiculturalism l.jpg

    • Conservative (diversity as a deficit, communit.)

    • Left essentialist (Afrocentrism, also communit.)

    • Liberal (natural equality, lack of opportunities, decontextualisation, depolitisation)

      but procedural liberalism vs communitarian liber. – Kis, Taylor, Kymlicka (see also politics of recognition)

    • Pluralist - salad bowl (exoticism, affirmation) vs melting pot

    Multiculturalism cont l.jpg
    Multiculturalism – cont.

    • Critical MC (Frankfurt School, power, emancipation, soc. justice, self reflection)

    • Antiracist (life chances - CERES)

    • Reflexive (Ali Ratansi – Derrida + Giddens)

    • Cosmopolitan

    • Ethnicity as habitus (Bourdieu)

    • Hybridity (H. Bhabha, Paul Gilroy, St. Hall) rooting vs shifting

      (see S. May, P. McLaren, etc)

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    Multiculturalism – cont.

    V. Parrillo: three models of minority integration:

    • Assimilation (majority- comformity)

    • Amalgamation (melting pot)

    • Accommodation (pluralism) (multiculturalism)

      Multiculturalism = diversity + cooperation

      Parillo, 1997

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    State policies incl. MCP

    Eva Sobotka: policies twds the Roma in CEE:

    • Exclusion

    • Assimilation

    • Co-existence

    • Multiculturalism

      Sobotka 2003

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    MCP target groups (minorities)/claims and expectations

    1. Indigenous (Nunavat, Sami)

    National minorities (Can., Eur.) Autonomy

    2. Legal immigrants, gastarbeiters,

    refugees Fair terms of integration

    Irregular & illegal immigrants (denizens/metics)

    3. AfroAmericans Inclusion

    4. Roma Positive action

    5. Ch. Jews, Amish, etc Difficult case

    Kymlicka –

    stages: communitarian, liberal, nation building

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    Liberal position

    • Dworkin: substantial and procedural rights

    • Rawls: individual autonomy supplemented by non-discrimination provisions should always carry more importance than collective rights

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    Arguments against ethnocultural neutrality of the state

    • Education

    • Legal system

    • Diffusion of language

    • Relation to different ethnical/ethical questions:

      slavery, polygamy, polyandry, incest, euthanasia, suicide, capital punishment, abortion, coerced marriages, divorce on demand, gay and lesbian marriages, etc.

    Ethnocultural justice kymlicka l.jpg
    Ethnocultural justice (Kymlicka)

    Two main ideas:

    • Minorities are also entitled to various degrees of nation-building

    • Minority rights are a supplement not a substitute for human rights

    Multiculturalism cont23 l.jpg
    Multiculturalism – cont.

    Integration, inclusion, inclusive education

    Intercultural vs multiculrural

    Politics of redistribution,

    of recognition (Frazer) –

    • politics of equal dignity (Autonomy)

    • politics of difference (Authenticity) (Taylor)

    Racism isms l.jpg
    Racism & isms

    ……… sexism, disableism, ageism, homophobia

    Neil Thompson

    Racism can be defined as an attitude (ideology) or action (behaviour) that disadvantages individuals or groups on the basis of their “racial” inferiority[1], mainly by means of limiting their access to scarce resources.1]Racial difference or racial inferiority is often perceived or constructed in terms of different culture, ethnicity, religion, language, etc.

    Explanations of racism l.jpg
    Explanations of racism:

    1. Psychological”Some people are like that”

    2. Lack of knowledge, ignorance „To know is to love“

    3.Intergroup relations ”Birds of a feather”

    4.Individuals are racists because the structures, practices, and values of our society are racist. ”Its the system”

    Discrimination i sms personal cultural structural neil thompson l.jpg
    Discrimination/isms:Personal – Cultural - StructuralNeil Thompson

    Racisms cont l.jpg
    Racisms – cont.

    • from violent attacks or scapegoating

    • topaternalistic crypto-racistassistance to m.

    • tendency to deny racism (unacceptable)

      two main meanings:

      1) ideology (beliefs) about racial superiority

      2) “the whole complex of factors which produce racial discrimination” and sometimes also “those which produce racial disadvantage”


    Racism as ideology l.jpg
    Racism as ideology

    1. the so called “scientific racism of the 19th century”, manifested for example in the publication by Herrnstein, Murray, 1995

    2. “popular” racism or “common sense” racism that is based on ethnocentrism, a tendency to believe that one´s own cultural paradigm is universal, neutral and superior to any other culture

    In other words l.jpg
    In other words…


    1. denies all difference in the name of universality of the human nature, but unconsciously it takes back this universality to the dominant model;

    2. uses the obvious differences to turn them into instruments of domination, exploitation, condemnation, exclusion, or extermination.

    Racisms cont30 l.jpg
    Racisms- cont.

    • „Racism, in short, involves

    • stereotypes about difference and inferiority

    • use of power to exclude, discriminate, subjugate“

    • The Parekh Report, 2000

    • Attitudes

    • Behaviour

    • Structures




    Racisms cont31 l.jpg
    Racisms – cont.




    Assimilation and racism b aub c k l.jpg

    assimilation is possible



    assimilation is required


    compulsory assimilation

    racist double-bind




    Assimilation and Racism(Bauböck)

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    Assimilationist model




    Does the individual fit

    into the System or ‘Institution’?


    Curriculum multiculturalism model l.jpg
    Curriculum (Multiculturalism) model

    Cultural Effects





     Does the organisation of this ‘institution’

    recognise Diversity ?


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    Equity/Rights Model

    Social and Political Effects




    Are people enabled in this‘institution’?

    Do the structures allow for

    achievement, growth and opportunities?


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    Enlarged Europe – May 2004

    Green paper on Equality and non-discrimination in an enlarged European Union:

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    Institutional racism

    1999 – The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry:

    Report of an Inquiry by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny,also at; mainly chapter 6, pp. 26-28

    „Institutional Racism defined as:The collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantages minority ethnic people.“