What was the Renaissance?…a “rebirth in learning and doing”…a “challenge of the status quo”…encouragement within society to “think outside of the box”…the beginning of the modern era in world history, by recreating the greatness of the classical civilizations…an incredible time in which thinking leapt beyond the capabilities of civilization
Where did the Renaissance take place at? … modern-day Italy (Florence, Rome, Venice, Milan and Naples) ... thus spreading throughout all of Europe from Italy to Germany, France, the Netherlands and, eventually, England.
Who, or what, was effected by the Renaissance? … “everyone” was in one way or another affected by the renaissance ideas. … areas that changed, included artistic, literary, religious, scientific, exploratory and commercial endeavors at every level of society.
How and why did the Renaissance happen? … a strong desire, or thirst, for knowledge that had been forgotten about since classical times. … out of necessity, as society was too curious about every aspect of life and existence, which led to a “rebirth” in human curiosity.
Commercial: global banking; world markets and economies. Art: life-like realism in society; religious influence; idealism. Areas of the Renaissance Exploration: discovery; exploration and conquest; “Glory, God and Gold”. Literature: tragedy, comedy, drama; entertainment with messages about society. Religion: religious controversy that split church into Roman Catholic and Protestant. Science: seeking the truth about the reality of nature; science vs. religion/superstition.
Humanism: a study of classical Greek and Roman culture Petrarch: 1st humanist; created libraries and encouraged knowledge Patron: a supporter of the arts De Medici: a wealthy Italian family who supported renaissance art
Donatello: life-like statues and sculptures with classical influence Raphael: combine Christian and classical images; School of Athens Michelangelo: sculptor and painter; La Pieta, David, Moses and Sistine Chapel Da Vinci: “true renaissance man”; artist, inventor, designer, painter, scientist…; Mona Lisa, Last Supper
Anguissola: “female” court painter Brunelleschi: architect and designer; domes ------- Durer: copper and woodcut engravings; book illustrations Van Eyck: realistic paintings of town life
Bruegel: paintings of countryside and village scenes; criticized problems in society Rubens: combination painter; classical and realistic daily life
Castiglione: writer; handbook for idealistic court behavior; “well-rounded” person; ideal man and woman Machiavelli: described ideal governments and leaders; “feared than loved”; The Prince -------------------
Erasmus: church needs to return to simple message of bible; wrote about ending church corruption More: wrote about an ideal society; “utopia” Rabelias: editorials about society; Gargantua and Pantagruel
Shakespeare: playwright; plays of virtue and mortality; Hamlet, Macbeth, Romeo/Juliet and Julius Caesar Cervantes: mocked medieval society and chivalry; Don Quixote Guttenberg: printing press; allows knowledge and learning to become widespread
Roman-Catholic: dominant religion of Europe, but seen as flawed by many Indulgences: selling of pardons for sins by the church; corrupt means of making money; leads to Christian church split
Luther: disliked church corruption and encouraged change; posted 95 theses; founder of Protestant church Peace of Augsburg: (1555) meeting that allowed religious freedom in Europe; Roman-Catholic and Protestant
Protestant (North) Vs. Catholic (South)
Ptolemy: “geocentric” theory of universe; earth-centered Copernicus: “heliocentric” theory of universe; sun-centered Brahe: astronomy Kepler: orbits of planets Galileo: 1st telescope; “heliocentric” ideas contradicted church; Inquisition
Scientific Method: logical method to discover ‘truth’ and knowledge Bacon: science can help humanity conquer nature and end suffering Decartes: everything must be proven; inquiry; “I think therefore I am” Newton: greatest scientist; motion and gravity; opened scientific thinking
Boyle: chemistry Vesalius: anatomy; muscle and tissue Pare: infections; stitches Harvey: heart; circulation of the blood Leeuwenhoek: microscope
…Renaissance ideas led to global curiosity and discovery, thus leading to further exploration with the way being paved by the leading nations of Europe…
Portugal Spain England France Netherlands
Characteristics of exploration… • Commercial Revolution (money-lending) encouraged new ideas, methods and voyages • Desire to reach the exotic Far East wealth and luxury goods…by-pass the dangers of the Silk Road • “Glory, God and Gold” • Collision of cultures…”superior vs. inferior”…cultural destruction
Age of Exploration Explorers - Dias (1487-1488) Portugal rounded southern tip of Africa Columbus (1492) Spain West Indies/ New World
Da Gama (1497-1498) Portugal 1st to reach India Vespucci (1497-1502) Spain West Indies, South American coastline, “Americas”
Cabral (1500) Portugal Brazilian coast Balboa (1513) Spain Pacific Ocean
Magellan (1509-1522) Spain 1st to circumnavigate the globe De Leon (1513) Spain “Fountain of Youth”
Cortes (1519-1521) Spain Conquered Aztecs Pizarro (1531) Spain Conquered Incas
Coronado (1540-1542) Spain American Southwest Drake (1577-1580) England 1st English explorer to circumnavigate the globe
…to finance all of the above endeavors from arts, literature, religion, science and exploration; the renaissance needed “means” to gain their “ends”. So to fulfill this monetary need, monarchies, patrons and other sources stepped up to support the renaissance spirit. These supporters also included the…
Dutch & Jews
…these financial sources lead to the creation of the Commerical Revolution, or modern-day banking… …all of these incredible events and intriguing people changed the world and laid the foundation for the modern society.