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Grain Aeration, “Just the Basics, Ma’am”. Tri-State GEAPS Workshop Amarillo, TX Jan. 18, 2007. Carol Jones, PhD. Stored Product Engineering Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept. . Why Do We Aerate?. Condition grain by cooling to safe level for storage

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grain aeration just the basics ma am

Grain Aeration,“Just the Basics, Ma’am”

Tri-State GEAPS Workshop

Amarillo, TX

Jan. 18, 2007

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

why do we aerate

Why Do We Aerate?

Condition grain by cooling to safe level for storage

Uniform cooling prevents moisture migration

Very powerful IPM tool

With more air, used for grain drying

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

aeration as ipm tool

Aeration as IPM Tool

Control insects by cooling to < 60° F

15°F drop (ex: 90° to 75 °) reduces activity 50 – 75%

Very powerful IPM tool

Aeration = Crop Insurance!!

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

suggested plan for southern states

Suggested Plan for Southern States

At binning, cool to mid 70’s using nighttime air

Mid September, aerate second time to low 60’s

Can prevent the need to fumigate

Eliminates insect population buildup and damage

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

suggested plan for south

Suggested Plan for South

General suggested rates:

Steel bins and flat storage: 0.1 cfm/bu (1/10th cfm/bu)

Concrete upright bins: 0.05 cfm/bu (1/20th cfm/bu)

For southern states:

0.2 cfm/bu at least, 0.25 to 0.3 is best if affordable

At 0.3 cfm/bu: takes 30-35 hours of nighttime cooling to drop 15° in summer

Expect wheat shrinkage of about 0.8%

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

general design factors what to consider

General Design Factors…What to consider

Grain Type (coarse vs. small)

Location/harvest date

Storage structure

Available energy

Cooling speed vs. energy cost

(cool as fast as you can afford)

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

specifics what to consider

Specifics…What to consider

Airflow rate (fast is better …insurance)

Grain airflow resistance

Wheat static pressure = 2x corn or soybeans

Propeller vs. centrifugal fan type

Airflow direction (suction or pressure)

Distribution (ducts or perforated floor)

Control (manual or automatic)

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

components

Components

Fans

Ducts…transition and supply

Floor distribution system

Roof vents, exhaust fans

Controls for fan regulation

Pressure switch on fans for negative pressure systems

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

calculating cycle time

Calculating Cycle Time

AT = aeration time, hours/cycle

AR = airflow rate, cfm/bu

TW = test weight, lb/bu

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

cycle time flow rate and test weight

Cycle Time, Flow Rate, and Test Weight

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

slide11

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

positive or negative airflow

Positive or Negative Airflow

Negative Airflow:

Pros…

Reduced condensation under steel roofs

Cooling zone movement estimated by fan exhaust air temperatures

Can hold covers on outdoor grain piles

Cons…

Needs larger transition/duct cross-section areas (especially in flat storage)

Roof damage if vents freeze (use neg. pressure switch)

Top grain heat moves through all grain

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

positive or negative airflow13

Positive or Negative Airflow

Positive Airflow:

Pros…

Distribution in flat storage is more uniform

Add warm grain w/o heating cool grain

Aeration zone finished when surface grain cools

Less plugging of perf. floors or ducts

Cons…

Condensation under steel roofs

Heat of compression raises air temp. 3-10° F

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

slide14

Fans

Centrifugal and axial

Use FANS program from Univ. of

Minnesota or Purdue

Factors: power, efficiency, multiple fans in series or parallel

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

slide15

Fans

Axial

Van-axial

Tube-axial (small - 2Hp or less)

Low cost, noisy

3 – 5 inches static pressure

Centrifugal

1460 to 3500 rpm

Higher cost

Quieter

More airflow per HP above 5” static pressure

Fan Performance…consult manufacturerinfo. Sheets, AMCA certification is best info.

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

slide16

Fans

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

fans selection in a nutshell

Fans – selection in a nutshell

Optimum performance

Efficiency based on cfm/hp

Noise, cost, reliability, mounting dimensions, space

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

air distribution systems

Air Distribution Systems

Consist of…

Transitions, manifolds, supply ducts

Perforated ducts, pads or false floors

Roof vents or exhaust fan systems

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

transitions

Transitions

Air Tunnel

Transition smaller than air duct tunnel is BEST!

Foundation

Transition

Fan

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

transition supply duct air velocities

Transition/Supply Duct Air Velocities

Maximum design air velocity…

positive pressure: 2500 fpm

negative pressure: 2000 fpm

Preferred design air velocity…

positive pressure: 1500-2000 fpm

negative pressure: 1000-1500 fpm

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

perforated distribution duct velocities

Perforated Distribution Duct Velocities…

Upright storages: 2000 fpm

Flat storages: 1500 fpm

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

airflow path ratio

C

A

C

B

Airflow Path Ratio

A + B <= 1.5 C

C: duct to grain peak

A + B … longest path

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

round bin floor layouts

Round Bin Floor Layouts

Pad.

Square “Y”.

Double “T”

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

more floor layouts large bins

More Floor Layouts – Large Bins

Double Pad

Quad “F”

Double “H”

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

vertical aerator big bins with dia sidewall 2 5 1

Vertical Aerator …Big Bins with Dia:Sidewall > 2.5:1

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

perforated floors

Perforated Floors

Cereal Grains: 3/32” diameter perf.

Smaller Seeds: 3/64 to 1/16”

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

coring to improve aeration

Coring to Improve Aeration

Can reduce cooling time and costs up to 30%

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

flat storage duct layout

Flat Storage Duct Layout

  • Less airflow under valleys
  • More airflow under peaks
  • Requires non-uniform distribution to get uniform delivery!!!

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

what about hopper bins

Half-round Duct

for Hopper Bin

What about Hopper Bins?

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

roof venting

Roof Venting

Pressure System needs exhaust vents

1 ft2 cross-section area per 1000-1500 cfm

Suction System needs inlet vents

1 ft2 cross-section area per 800-1000 cfm

Keep static pressure in bin head space to 1/8” or less

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

vent types

Vent Types

Gooseneck Vents

Mushroom Vents

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

roof exhausters types

Roof Exhausters Types

Power Vents

200 – 250% of aeration rate

Run when aeration is on plus 15-20 minutes

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

controllable roof vents

Controllable Roof Vents

Normally closed

Designed to open under pressure or vacuum

Interlocked electrically with fans

Reduces insect infiltration

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

fan controllers

Fan Controllers

Temperature limit thermostats

Humidity control

NEMA 4R housing

Hour meter, selector switch

Time delay relays (TDR) for multiple fans

Off-the-shelf components

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

rh and temp controllers

RH and Temp Controllers

Partial list of vendors

OPI

The Boone Group

AgriDry Rimik Pty

GSI

Caldwell/Chief-Agri

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

cost estimates

Cost Estimates

Aeration System:

6.0 – 12.0 ¢/bu

Controller:

0.3 – 1.0 ¢/bu

Temperature Cables:

0.3 – 1.0 ¢/bu

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

monitoring systems

Monitoring Systems

  • Least expensive
  • Most expensive

Manual Readout and log book

Data Logger with manual plug in to thermocouples

Computer interfaced automatic monitoring

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

slide38

OPIGIMAC Temperature and Insect Monitoring, Aeration Fan Control System

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

more new technology

More New Technology

Closed Loop Aeration working with CLF system in sealed storage

Cross-Flow Aeration

As much as 30% less power than vertical airflow

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

more new technology40

More New Technology

USDA Electronic Insect Monitoring System now commercialized by OPI as “the Insector”

Purdue Univ. working on a mold sniffing system to detect development of mold by CO2 detection

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK

info sites http www biosystems okstate edu home jcarol http www biosystems okstate edu sare

Info-Siteshttp://www.biosystems.okstate.edu/home/jcarol/http://www.biosystems.okstate.edu/sare/Info-Siteshttp://www.biosystems.okstate.edu/home/jcarol/http://www.biosystems.okstate.edu/sare/

Acknowledgements:

USDA and Cooperative State Research Education and Extension Service

Dr. Ron Noyes, Grain Storage Engineering, LLC, Stillwater, OK (OSU Professor Emeritus)

Carol Jones, PhD.

Stored Product Engineering

Biosystems and Ag. Engr. Dept.

Stillwater, OK