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Sociology 9th Edition. Rodney Stark University of Washington. Chapter 1 . Groups and Relationships: A Sociological Sampler. Chapter Outline. Science: Theory and Research The Discovery of Social Facts The Sociological Imagination Sociology and the Social Sciences Units of Analysis

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sociology 9th edition

Sociology 9th Edition

Rodney StarkUniversity of Washington

chapter 1

Chapter 1

Groups and Relationships: A Sociological Sampler

chapter outline
Chapter Outline
  • Science: Theory and Research
  • The Discovery of Social Facts
  • The Sociological Imagination
  • Sociology and the Social Sciences
  • Units of Analysis
  • Micro- and Macrosociology
  • A Global Perspective
chapter outline4
Chapter Outline
  • Scientific Concepts
  • Groups: The Sociological Subject
  • Solidarity and Conflict: The Sociological Questions
  • Analyzing Social Networks
  • Studying Self-Aware Subjects
  • The Social Scientific.c Process
  • Free Will and Social Science
science theory and research
Science: Theory and Research
  • Science is a method for describing and explaining why and how things work
  • The scientific method consists of two components: theory and research.
theory
Theory
  • Abstract statement that explains why and how certain things happen and why they are as they are.
  • Scientific theories must make definite predictions and prohibitions.
research
Research
  • Making appropriate empirical observations or measurements.
  • Test theories or gain knowledge about some portion of reality so it becomes possible to theorize about it.
holman s law of inequality
Holman’s Law of Inequality
  • Friendships tend to be concentrated among people of the same rank.
  • Exceptions to the rule: members with close ties to those of another rank, tend to lack ties to others of their own rank.
the discovery of social facts
The Discovery Of Social Facts
  • In 1825, the French Ministry of Justice began to collect criminal justice statistics.
  • Soon, they began collecting data on activities such as suicide, illegitimate births and military desertion.
  • The data was published, as the General Account of the Administration of Criminal Justice in France, with little or no analysis.
andr michel guerry
André Michel Guerry
  • Became fascinated with the statistics and devoted himself to interpreting them.
  • In 1831, he published his findings, attempting to see if education influenced crime rates.
  • In 1833, he published his masterpiece, Essai sur la statistique morale de la France (Essay the Moral Statistics of France) and launched sociology.
guerry s research stability and variation
Guerry’s Research: Stability and Variation
  • Rates were stable from year to year:
    • In any French city or department, almost exactly the same number of people committed suicide, stole, or gave birth out of wedlock.
  • Rates varied from one place to another:
    • The number of suicides per 100,000 population varied from 34.7 in the Department of the Seine to fewer than 1 per 100,000 in Aveyron.
  • These patterns forced Guerry to reassess the primary causes of human behavior
durkheim and suicide
Durkheim and Suicide
  • In, 1897 Frenchman, Émile Durkheim, published Suicide.
  • Stressed that high suicide rates reflect weaknesses in the relationships among members of a society, not in the character or personality of the individual.
the sociological imagination
The Sociological Imagination
  • Seeing the link between incidents in the lives of individuals and large social forces.
  • Data on moral statistics forced early social scientists to develop sociological imaginations.
sociology and the social sciences
Sociology and the Social Sciences
  • Sociology is the scientific study of the patterns and processes of human social relations.
  • All social sciences have the same subject matter: human behavior.
  • Social Scientists: psychologists, economists, anthropologists, criminologists, political scientists, many historians, and sociologists.
why modern sociology stresses a global perspective
Why Modern Sociology Stresses a Global Perspective
  • To provide a meaningful basis of comparison.
  • Much of what goes on in one society is influenced by other societies.
  • Science seeks general theories. A theory must hold everywhere that it applies.
fundamental sociological questions
Fundamental Sociological Questions
  • What binds people together?
  • What separates us?
  • What causes social solidarity and what causes social conflict?
the social scientific process 8 steps
The Social Scientific Process: 8 Steps
  • Wonder. Science always begins with someone wondering why.
  • Conceptualize. Scientists must be precise about what it is they are wondering about.
  • Theorize. To explain something, we must say how and why a set of concepts are related.
  • Operationalize. Identify indicators of each concept to make a theory testable.
the social scientific process 8 steps20
The Social Scientific Process: 8 Steps
  • Hypothesize. Formulate predictions about what will be observed in the connections among the indicators of the concepts.
  • Observe. Use the appropriate research design to gather observations.
  • Analyze. Compare what we observe with what the hypothesis said we would see.
  • Assess. Change theories to fit the evidence.