Marine Ecology and Environment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Marine Ecology and Environment

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  1. Marine Ecology and Environment

  2. Introduction: Ecology and its Domain • Definition and scope of ecology • The word ‘ecology’ was first used by Ernest Haeckel in 1869. • Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. • The word ‘ecology’ is derived from the Greek oikos, meaning ‘home’.

  3. Moderm definition: The scientific study of the distribution and abundance of organisms and the interactions that determine distribution and abundance. • The living world can be viewed as a biological hierarchy that starts with subcellular particles, and continues up through cells, tissues and organs. • Ecology deals with the next three levels: the individual organism, the population, and the community.

  4. Individual organism: • Population: consisting of individuals of the same species. • Community: consisting of a greater or lesser number of species populations.

  5. At the level of the organism, ecology deals with how individuals are affected by (and how they affect) their environment. • At the level of the population, ecology is concerned with the presence or absence of particular species, their abundance or rarity, and with the trends and fluctuations in the numbers. • Community ecology then deals with the composition and organization of ecological communities.

  6. Description (描述), explanation(解釋) (understand), prediction(預測) and control(控制) • To describe… • To explain… • To predict… • To control…

  7. Pure and applied ecology

  8. CH-1 The Ocean as a Habitat

  9. The Changing Marine Environment

  10. Charting the Deep

  11. A different View of the Ocean Floor

  12. 1.2 The World Ocean

  13. Visualizing the World Ocean

  14. Seeing in the Dark

  15. 1.3 Properties of Seawater • Pure Water

  16. Viscosity (黏滯力) and Surface Tension (表面張力)

  17. Density-Temperature Relationships Heat Capacity • Convection • Conduction • Calories • Latent heat Of vaporization • Latent heat of fusion

  18. Solvent Action

  19. Sea water Dissolved Salts

  20. Salt and Water Balance

  21. Light and Temperature in the Sea

  22. Temperature Effects

  23. Our Planetary Greenhouse

  24. Salinity-Temperature-Density Relationships

  25. Water Pressure Dissolved Gases and Acid-Base Buffering

  26. Dissolved Nutrients Nitrate (NO3-) Phosphate (PO43-)

  27. 1.4 The Ocean in Motion • Wind Waves

  28. Surface Currents