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Functions of Assessment
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  1. Functions of Assessment Why do we assess students? Discuss in your group and suggest the three most important reasons

  2. Functions of Assessment To facilitate learning: . Measure the extent a student has achieved the set objectives . Motivate students to learn . Monitor, assist and improve learning through constructive feedback To facilitate teaching: . Provide feedback to assist and improve teaching For institutional / professional requirements: . Grade, rank or select students . Maintain standard

  3. Assessing Student Learning Outcomes Problems with assessing student learning outcomes Discuss and share in your group any problems you have encountered or concerns that you have in assessing the learning outcomes of your students

  4. Processes Involved in Assessment 1. Setting the assessment criteria 2. Providing evidence in relation to those criteria 3. Making a judgment on the evidence provided 4. Communicating the results of the judgment 5. Making use of the results of the assessment

  5. Principles of Assessment . Clear purpose – central purpose is to improve student learning . An integral part of the curriculum design and planning . Relevant criteria . Appropriate methods . Clear communication and transparent . Consistent procedures . Valid and practicable tasks . Realistic workload . Provision of constructive feedback to facilitate and improve learning and teaching . Regular review and improvement of the system

  6. Approaches and Models of Assessment Formative / Summative Criterion-referenced / Norm-referenced Contextualized / Decontextualized (authentic) (unauthentic) Measurement model / Standards model Teacher-centred / Student-centred Teacher- / Peer- / Self-assessment

  7. Formative Assessment . Continuous On-going during learning / teaching . Diagnostic Provides feedback to students and teachers on - strengths and weaknesses - difficulties - misconceptions . Remedial Provides opportunities for modification / improvement

  8. Summative Assessment . Terminal At the end of learning / teaching . Descriptive How well materials / knowledge / skills have been learned . For ranking and selection No provision for modification / improvement

  9. Criterion-referenced Assessment . Assesses against pre-set criteria If the criteria have been achieved, and how well they have been achieved . Operates within the formative model Norm-referenced Assessment . Assesses and compares performance amongst students . Relative scoring / grading For ranking and selection of students . Operates within the summative model

  10. Contextualized (authentic) Assessment . Assessment tasks reflect the goal of learning . Focuses on - students’ construction of functioning knowledge - students’ performance in application of knowledge in the real work context of the discipline area Decontextualized (unauthentic) Assessment . Focuses on declarative knowledge and /or procedural knowledge in artificial situations detached from the real work context

  11. Measurement Model of Assessment . Based on the theory of individual differences . Assumes that the learning being measured is stable over time . Student performances are reduced to quantifiable scores for comparison purpose . Focuses on - reliability of scores - discriminating and ranking of students

  12. Standards Model of Assessment . Based on the assumption that - standards can be achieved by most students, and reflected in their performance - student performance can be fairly assessed against the set standards . Concerns with the quality of the learning outcomes . Focuses on - identifying the essential performances in the given discipline - establishing clear criteria defining the quality of the standards of student performance - obtaining evidence of the achievement of the standards - validity

  13. Teacher-centred / Student-centred Model of Assessment Depends on who is involved in the various processes involved in assessment 1. Setting the assessment criteria 2. Providing evidence in relation to those criteria 3. Making a judgment on the evidence provided 4. Communicating the results of the judgment 5. Making use of the results of the assessment

  14. Teacher / Peer / Self Assessment Depends on who is involved in making a judgment on the evidence provided

  15. Assessing Student Learning Outcomes Assessment should not be labelled as “good” or “bad”, but rather “appropriate” or “inappropriate”. The important issue is how the assessment is designed and implemented to appropriately address the learning objectives

  16. Portfolio Assessment Based on Constructivist Theory Meaning is created by the learner rather than being imposed or transmitted by direct instruction Students are required to provide evidence to convince the teacher that the best kind of learning in relation to the objectives has been achieved A move towards a more student-centred approach to assessment

  17. Portfolio Assessment Essential characteristics: . Collection of work produced by the student . Assembled for a particular purpose . Includes students’ reflection on their work in relation to the achievement of objectives

  18. Portfolio Assessment Students’ responsibility is to: • . provide evidence that learning relevant to course objectives has taken place . choose and justify the portfolio items . provide a holistic case of an integrated and usable body of knowledge

  19. Portfolio Assessment Teachers’ responsibility is to: . acquaint students with course objectives . provide guidance for preparation of the portfolio e.g. philosophy of portfolio assessment implementation procedures examples of some possible portfolio items . provide on-going support and formative feedback . make a holistic assessment of the portfolio . provide feedback

  20. Portfolio Assessment Focus of evaluation of the portfolio: . Relevance to the subject . Accuracy against acceptable scholarly standards . Coverage of the subject content and objectives . Making an integrated case or argument . Is important to the students’ own academic / professional purposes

  21. Portfolio Assessment Assessment includes the following aspects: • . Each item in its own right • relevance, accuracy and quality . The student’s justification of each item in relation to the objective(s) being addressed . The coherence of all the items in providing a holistic view on the subject . An overall grade of the portfolio

  22. Portfolio Assessment Selection of Portfolio items . Based on the subject objectives . Avoid repetitive items in terms of content and / or objective(s) being addressed . Select a balanced collection of items that address the full range of subject objectives, rather than focusing on excellence of any particular individual items

  23. Backwash Effect of Assessment Teacher’s and student’s perspectives on assessment Teacher’s perspective: Objectives Teaching activities Assessment Student’s perspective: Assessment Learning activities Outcomes

  24. Application of the 3P model to Assessment of Learning Outcomes PresageProcessProduct Student Characteristics: Prior experience of assessment Conceptions of assessment Language competence Preparation for Assessment Surface Deep Assessment Performance Assessment Context: Curriculum Assessment methods Students’ perceptions of assessment requirements

  25. Assessment is the contextual factor which most strongly affects student learning. It is the students’ perception of the assessment requirements that constitutes the hidden curriculum, and drives how students learn.

  26. Constructive Alignment Biggs (1999) Curriculum in the form of clear objectives stating level of understanding required Teaching/ chosen to facilitate achievement of the learningobjectives activities Assessment chosen to test if students have achieved tasks the objectives and the level of achievement