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Chapter 22 – Asian Transitions in an Age of Global Change

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Chapter 22 – Asian Transitions in an Age of Global Change. Ming Dynasty. Chinese civilization flourished culturally, agriculturally, and commercially. Provide stability for over 300+ years. Doing Things Right. Strengthening the Great Wall kept the Mongols out Restored civil service exams

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ming dynasty
Ming Dynasty

Chinese civilization flourished culturally, agriculturally, and commercially. Provide stability for over 300+ years

doing things right
Doing Things Right
  • Strengthening the Great Wall
    • kept the Mongols out
  • Restored civil service exams
    • Limited the bureaucracy
  • Nationwide school system
  • Completion of the Grand Canal
    • Linked Yellow (Huang He) & Yangtze rivers
  • Commerce received a much-needed boost
    • Not all internal development; some outside influence
zhenghe and chinese exploration
Zhenghe and Chinese Exploration
  • Explored Indian Ocean and the East coast of Africa (aided by the Chinese invention of the compass): 1405-1423
  • Confucian scholars were resistant to change (Not impressed with outside world)

Hongwu – First Ming emperor 1368-1403 – drove out Mongols; reinstated and expanded the civil service exam & Confucian ideas

  • 50 years after last of the Zhenghe expeditions, China developed a policy of isolation, commerce and Chinese navy decline
  • Macao and Canton – only two ports in Ming China where Europeans were allowed to trade
the fall of the ming
The Fall of the Ming
  • Plagued with weak rulers and corruption
  • High taxes on the people led to peasant unrest
  • Bad harvests
the rise of the qing
The Rise of the Qing
  • The Manchu people from Manchuria overthrew the Ming dynasty and ruled China for nearly 300 years (1644-1911)
the great kangxi
The Great Kangxi
  • Stabilized the frontiers
  • Tolerant of new Christian missionaries; over 300,000 Chinese converted to Christianity
  • After his death the policy changed into suppression
sneaky europeans
Sneaky Europeans
  • (1736-1797) European powers were able to make a significant impact on Chinese
  • Peasant rebellion – White Lotus Rebellion – weakens government
  • Europeans push for trading privileges
matteo ricci
Matteo Ricci
  • Most famous Jesuit missionary to China
  • Founder of the Chinese Christian Church
  • He and fellow Jesuits were respected by the Chinese because of their ability to use the Chinese language and respect for Confucianism.
women in china
Women in China
  • Still regarded as inferior to men
  • Only men could obtain a formal education and career
  • Women could not divorce their husbands or inherit property
  • Foot-binding continued through the Qing period
  • Women were still at/near the bottom of Chinese society

Muslim traders dominated Indian Ocean trade

  • Portuguese used military force to enter the Asian trade network
  • Portuguese aimed to establish a monopoly over the spice trade
  • Portuguese won supremacy on the African and Indian coasts
  • They built forts at Goa (western India) and Malacca on the Malayan peninsula in 1511

Rise of the Dutch and English:

    • Dutch control the spice Island – captured Malacca; had better ships
    • English control India after the 7 years war
  • Europeans were able to control Asian seas but not inland territories. The Europeans were forced to accept the power of Asian rulers in return for permission to trade

Europeans established tribute regimes resembling the Spanish system in the “New World”

  • Indigenous people lived under their own leaders and paid tribute in products produced by coerced labor under the direction of local elites (tribute system)

Asian sea trading network– Divided, from West to East, into 3 zones prior to the European arrival, an Arab zonebased on glass, carpets, and tapestries; an Indian zone, with cotton textiles; and a Chinese zone, with paper, porcelain, and silks


English and Dutch were NOT interested in winning converts to their religion.

  • Portugal and Spain were, but success in Asia was minimal except in northern Philippines

Goa – Indian city developed by the Portuguese and a major Indian Ocean trading base; developed a mixed Indian & European population

Malacca – City on the tip of the Malayan peninsula; a center for trade to the southeastern Asian islands; became a major Portuguese trading Base

japan and the great unifiers
Japan and the Great Unifiers
  • After collapse of Shogunate power in early 15th century, daimyo’s fought for power
  • Mid-16th century – 3 men fought for power:
    • Oda Nobunaga - Daimyo
    • ToyotomiHideyoshi - General
    • Tokugawa Ieyasu - Shogun

Japanese History under Tokugawa

  • Edo – capital city; modern-day Tokyo; center of Tokugawa Shogunate
  • Deshima – Island port in Nagasaki Bay; the only port open to foreigners, the Dutch, after the 1640’s

Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582)

  • First daimyo to make extensive use of firearms
  • Unifies a large part of Japan.
  • Died 1582 – assassinated by one of his own followers

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

General under Nobunaga; succeeded as power in central Japan

Becomes suspicious of European territorial ambitions.

Orders all European missionaries expelled from Japan.

Tries to invade Korea, but fails.


Tokugawa Ieyasu

  • Appointed shogun by the Emperor.
  • Four-class system laid down w/ marriage restricted to same class:
      • Warriors
      • Artisans
      • Merchants
      • Farmers

Consolidation of power instead of seeking overseas expansion; isolation


Tokugawa Shogunate Period

Japan closed off to all trade - isolation [except to the Dutch and Chinese].

  • The Dutch were restricted to a small island in Nagasaki harbor.

Japanese Christians persecuted and Christianity is forbidden.

The government is centralized with all power in the hands of the shogun.

Domestic trade flourishes.

Towns increase.

Merchant class becomes rich!

social changes culture
Social Changes/Culture
  • Trade and industry flourished (brings stability)
  • Social classes: emperor - shogun - daimyo - samurai - artisans - merchants – farmers/peasants
  • Culture thrived
  • Art and architecture prospered