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The Cell Cycle and Mitosis. AP Biology. Chromatin. Chromosomes. VS . Chromatin. 2 m of DNA must fit in a 1x10 -5 m nucleus. DNA wrapped around histone proteins to organize it and allow it fit into the nucleus Remember – it is condensed 200,000 x to fit in the nucleus

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chromatin
Chromatin

Chromosomes

VS.

chromatin1
Chromatin

2 m of DNA must fit in a 1x10-5 m nucleus. DNA wrapped around histone proteins to organize it and allow it fit into the nucleus

Remember – it is condensed 200,000 x to fit in the nucleus

It is still loosely coiled enough that enzymes can get into the DNA to copy it and make mRNA for protein synthesis

It is the normal form of DNA during all phases of the cell cycle except mitosis

chromosomes
Chromosomes

DNA compacted 12,000 times from chromatin

Cannot read or copy the DNA in chromosomes – it is too tightly wound

Formed solely during mitosis in order to divide the doubled DNA in ½

Also, in chromosome form, the DNA is protected from destructive enzymes since they can’t get into the tightly coiled structure

slide7
Structure of the Mitotic Chromosome Showing Sister Chromatids, Centromeres, Kinetochores, and Spindle Fiber Attachment

Chromatid – ½ of a chromosome

Sister chromatid – each half of the same chromosome

Centromere – complex of proteins attached to DNA holding the sister chromatids together

Kinetochore – complex of proteins attached to the outside surface of the chromosome at the centromeric region – where spindle fibers attach

the cell cycle
The Cell Cycle

G0 phase: cells do not divide

Ex: Nerve cells

Apoptosis

apoptosis
Apoptosis

Programmed Cell Death

  • Natural part of the cell cycle

Nucleases and proteases are specifically activated  chop up the DNA and organelles

Different from necrosis (premature death of cells that occurs when the cell doesn’t have access to blood supply)

Can be time activated:

  • Development of nervous system
  • Immune system
  • Hand and feet
  • Leaf termination
  • Cell death after

irreparable damage

cell cycle the hourly life of a cell what happens when and how
Cell Cycle – “The Hourly Life of a Cell”What happens when and how

Why do cells divide?

  • To make a new organism
  • Growth
  • Repair
  • Replacement of normal cell loss
  • Development
stages of mitosis
Stages of Mitosis

S Stage

Interphase

interphase
Interphase

Animal Cell

Interphase is not part of mitosis – it is the time between cell divisions

Interphase includes G1, S, and G2

During interphase the cell is doing its normal metabolic activities like protein synthesis

The cells are performing their duty as part of a tissue

The DNA duplicates to get ready for mitosis

The DNA is in chromatin form

Plant Cell

prophase1
Prophase

Animal Cell

The chromatin begins to condense into chromosomes and become visible in the nucleus

The nuclear membrane begins to break down

Centrosomes duplicate, form spindles, & move to the poles

Proteins attach to chromosomes forming kinetochores

Spindle fibers attach to the kinetochores and chromosomes begin moving

Plant Cell

metaphase1
Metaphase

Plant Cell

Animal Cell

The chromosomes are lined up down the equator by the spindles

anaphase1
Anaphase

Animal Cell

The sister chromatids separate at the centromeres

Each chromatid (now called a chromosome) heads to the pole of the cell

The movement is due to kinetochore movement along the spindle fiber microtubules

Plant Cell

telophase
Telophase

http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm

telophase1
Telophase

Animal Cell

The chromosomes are completely to the opposite poles

New membranes start to form around the DNA

The chromosomes begin to decondense back to chromatin

Cytoplasm begins to pinch in animal cells and a cell wall begins to form in plant cells – This is cytokinesis

Plant Cell

slide21

After telophase is complete, the cells reenter interphase and go about their normal business

The DNA is totally decondensed, new nuclei reformed, and there are totally 2 new cells

Interphase

differences plant vs animal cell mitosis
Differences Plant vs. Animal Cell Mitosis

Cytokinesis in a plant cell

Plant cells do not have centrioles in their centrosomes but animal cells do ?????

Plant cells cannot pinch in due to the cell wall – a new cell wall forms down the middle from the endoplasmic reticulum

Plant cells divide slower due to having to reform the cell wall

Cytokinesis in an animal cell

mitosis quiz animal cells
Mitosis Quiz – Animal Cells

Interphase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Interphase

Prophase

Telophase

mitosis quiz plant cells
Mitosis Quiz – Plant Cells

Metaphase

Telophase

Anaphase

Interphase

Prophase

Interphase

http://biology.nebrwesleyan.edu/benham/mitosis/

control of the cell cycle
Control of The Cell Cycle

Regulation by Internal Signals

There are checkpoints at the end of G1 and end of G2. Signal molecules cause the cycle to go on or stop.

  • Protein kinases (static levels) + cyclins (concentration fluctuates) = active kinases
    • Example:
      • MPF is an activated kinase that promotes G2→M

There is a checkpoint at the end of metaphase. Kinetochores produce a delay signal until spindles attach.

  • After attachment another protein breaks down the proteins holding the sister chromatids together.
control of the cell cycle1
Control of the Cell Cycle

Regulation by External Factors

Growth factors

  • GF’s bind to cell receptors activating the cell cycle
  • Example: Platelet derived growth factor

PDGF – in response to a wound, platelets release the GF which cause fibroblasts to proliferate.

Attachment proteins relay a message via cytoskeleton to halt cell cycle

immortality
Immortality

Why do cells cease to divide?

When cells cease to divide, why do they deteriorate and die?

Does this happen in-vivo and Can something change this?