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Russian Revolution. Russian Government Before Revolution. Monarchy: The Czar (Tsar) Until 1905 the Tsar's powers were unlimited. Russia had no constitution, no political party system to check the Tsar's power A strong secret police which terrorized the people.

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russian government before revolution
Russian Government Before Revolution
  • Monarchy: The Czar (Tsar)
  • Until 1905 the Tsar's powers were unlimited.
  • Russia had no constitution,
  • no political party system to check the Tsar's power
  • A strong secret police which terrorized the people.

Royal BackgroundNicholas I

  • Created the first secret police in Russia, brutal leader, response to revolt of army officers in 1825

Czar Alexander II

  • He implemented important reforms, notably the abolition of serfdom,
  • In 1867, he sold Alaska and the Aleutian Islands to the United States.
  • Killed by the Revolutionary Group: The People’s Will

Czar Alexander III

  • Alexander III's reign was during an industrial revolution in Russia .
  • His reign was harsh, against revolutionaries and other liberal movements.

Czar Nicholas II (1894)Last Czar of Russia

  • Nicholas II was a harsh and weak ruler
  • The Russian economy was bankrupt because of the Russo-Japanese War and WWI Russia’s entry into WWI became very unpopular.

Russo-Japanese War (1904)

Dispute over Manchuria with Japan

Shook national confidence in their progress and rule of Czar.

russia and world war i
Russia and World War I
  • Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary
  • War becomes unpopular
  • Rationing leads to starvation
  • Nicholas II leaves St. Petersburg to war front
march revolution 1917
March Revolution (1917)
  • 1917- protests spread through St. Petersburg and the Royal palace is taken over.
  • Czar abdicates
  • Provisional government (Duma) takes control lead by Alexander Keresnky
  • Provisional government unpopular after decision to stay in WWI
october bolshevik revolution 1917
October (Bolshevik) Revolution-1917
  • Lead by VI Lenin “Peace, Land, and Bread”
  • Won support of people (especially peasants)
  • 1918 March The Bolsheviks accept the peace of Brest‑Litovsk, ending WWI with Germany.
1919 1920

1919 White Armies (Royal and Menshevik troops) attack the Reds (Bolsheviks) from all directions.

  • 1920- Reds defeat Whites
rule of lenin 1920 1924
Rule of Lenin 1920-1924
  • Economic Reforms included the New Economic Plan (NEP)

-moderate mix of capitalism and socialism

  • Political Reforms

-Bolshevik party became Communist Party

-Russia becomes the United Soviet Socialist Republics

  • A Form of Socialism
    • Central Planning of the Economy by the State
  • Gov’t (Communist Party) makes decisions on individual jobs and pay
  • Lenin Dies
  • Power Vaccuum
  • Leon Trotsky vs. Joseph Stalin
  • Stalin takes control
  • Now must decide how he will maintain power
  • Decides to create a totalitarian state
characteristics of a totalitarian state
Characteristics of a Totalitarian State
  • Dictatorship- Absolute Authority
  • Dynamic Leader- Vision for the nation
  • State Control Over All Sectors of Society
    • Business, Family Life, Labor, youth groups, housing, religion, education, the arts
  • State Control Over the Individual
    • Obedience
    • Denies basic liberties
  • Organized Violence
    • Uses force to crush opposition
stalin s totalitarian state
Stalin’s Totalitarian State
  • State Control of the Economy
    • 5 year plan, collective farms
  • Police Terror
    • Great Purge, crush opposition
  • Religious Persecution
    • Control of the individual
  • Propaganda (socialist realism)
    • Molding peoples minds
  • Education
    • Controlled by the government