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Reproductive. Anatomy and Physiology. Presented by Ann Hearn. Menstrual Cycle. Varies every 28 - 35 days The time between ovulation and menstruation is relatively constant (14 days). Follicular phase.

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Anatomy and Physiology

Presented by

Ann Hearn

menstrual cycle
Menstrual Cycle
  • Varies every 28 - 35 days
  • The time between ovulation and menstruation is relatively constant (14 days). Follicular phase.
  • The variable is from menses to ovulation. It can not be predicted, the luteal phase.
  • Affected by various physical and emotional factors
reproductive a p
Reproductive A&P

You are responsible for reviewing the female and male reproductive structures and functions that make childbearing possible.



Ovarian Cycle





ovarian cycle
Ovarian Cycle
  • Development of the Graafian Follicle
  • Ovulation
  • Formation of Corpus Luteum
signs and symptoms of ovulation
Signs and Symptomsof Ovulation

1. Body Temperature increase

2. Mittelschmerz

3. Cervical Mucus Changes

  • Increase in amount
  • Becomes thin, watery, and clear
  • Ferning
  • Stretchable: Spinnbarkheit
  • Alkaline
hormonal cycle
Hormonal Cycle
  • FSH -- Follicle Stimulating Hormone
    • Begins Growth and Maturation of graafian follicle
  • LH -- Luteinizing Hormone
    • assists in continued growth of graafian follicle
    • responsible for proliferation of endometrium
    • Pro-gestation. Corpus luteum produces progesterone so endometrium won’t slough
endometrial cycle
Endometrial Cycle
  • Proliferation Phase
    • marked growth of glands and stroma
  • Secretory / Progestational Phase
    • endometrium secretes nourishment for the ovum
    • endometrium becomes thick and soft
    • getting ready for implantation
  • Menstrual Phase
    • without fertilization, both progesterone and estrogen drop--sloughing occurs. Corpus luteum degenerates.




a. proliferation of the endometrium

b. begins the growth of the graafian follicle

c. prevents sloughing of the endometrium

d. stimulates continued growth of the graafian follicle

critical thinking
Critical Thinking
  • The phase of the menstrual cycle when the endometrium is getting thick and soft and preparing for implantation is known as:

a. secretory phase

b. menstrual phase

c. proliferative phase


Maturation of Ovum and Sperm Cells

  • Pregnancy comes about from the union of a female germ cell, ovum with a male germ cell, the spermatozoon.
One ovum per month is discharged from the ovary. It is transported into the fallopian tube where it begins its journey through the tube in search for the sperm. Viable for 6 - 26 hours
  • When intercourse occurs, millions of sperm travel in search of an ova. Sperm release an enzyme as they swarm around the ova and one sperm is able to penetrate -- fertilization
Usually occurs in the distal portion of the fallopian tube
  • Once sperm penetrates ova, physiological barrier renders the ova impenetrable by other sperm, thus only one sperm enters a single ova
  • Each contributes 23

Chromosomes making a

Total of 46 chromosomes

  • Sex of baby determined

at this time. X =female,

Y = male

intrauterine development
Intrauterine Development
  • Two main phases are:
    • 1. Cellular multiplication
    • 2. Implantation
cellular multiplication
Cellular Multiplication
  • The fertilized zygote begins its travel through the fallopian tube toward the uterus.
  • Cell / mitotic division

(cleavage) occurs

  • Morula eventually forms a fluid filled cavity within the cell mass.
    • Inner solid cell mass is called Blastocyst
    • Outer cell mass that surrounds the cavity is the Trophoblast



Outer layer of cells








Zygote travels for about 7 days


Small finger-like projections extend from the trophoblast

And burrows into the endometrium

Implantation enables the blastocyst to absorb nutrients


After implantation, the endometrium becomes more thickened,

the cells enlarge, and is now called the Decidua.

  • Decidua Basalis

part directly under the


  • Decidua capsularis

portion that is pushed out by the

growing blastocyst and covers the


  • Decidua Vera --portion which

is not in immediate contact

with the ovum

cellular differentiation
Cellular Differentiation
  • At 10 – 14 days of age, the blastocyst or beginning zygote begins cellular differentiation into the primary germ layers.
  • All tissues, organs, and systems develop from these layers.
germ layers
Germ Layers


    • nervous
    • skin, hair, nails
    • sensory organs
  • Mesoderm
    • muscle
    • connective tissue
    • blood vessels
    • bone marrow
  • Endoderm
    • Genitourinary
    • Respiratory--larynx, trachea, lungs
    • Digestive
ask yourself
Ask Yourself ??
  • The thickened endometrium in which the fertilized embryo implants is called the:

a. endoderm

b. decidua

c. amnion

d. chorion

answer this
Answer this ...
  • The fetal nervous system is formed by the germ layer known as the:

a. ectoderm

b. mesoderm

c. entoderm

d. endoderm

  • Stage 1 – pre-embryonic
    • weeks 1 - 2
  • Stage 2 -- embryonic
    • weeks 3 - 8
    • period of ORGANOGENESIS
  • Stage 3 -- fetal
    • weeks 9 - 40
pre embryonic period weeks 1 2
Pre-embryonic PeriodWeeks 1-2
  • Traveling in the fallopian tube where

rapid cellular multiplication and differentiation occurs.

  • The establishment of the embryonic membranes and

the germ layers.

  • Groove formed along

middle of the back for

the neural tube.

embryonic period weeks 3 8
Embryonic PeriodWeeks 3-8
  • Week 3
    • anterior end of neural tube closes

to form the brain and the posterior

end closes to form the spinal cord

    • Heart begins to beat
    • Eyes appear
    • Limb Buds for arms

and legs

    • CR = 4 mm
Week 5
    • Head grows larger
    • Hand and feet plates develop
    • Facial features begin to develop
    • CR = 8 mm.
Week 6
    • Fetal circulation is established
    • Chambers form in the heart
    • Upper lip and palate start fusing
    • Eyes move to front of face
    • Fingers are webbed
    • External ear develops
Week 7
    • Eyelids start to form
    • Fingers develop; elbows visible
    • Diaphragm separates

abdomen from chest

    • Bronchi develop
    • Arms and legs move
Week 8
    • Fingers and toes distinct
    • Skeletal ossification begins
    • Testes and ovaries are


    • Heart has four chambers
    • Circulation through

umbilical cord occurs

    • *** ALL essential external and internal structures are present and now will continue to grow
fetal period weeks 9 40
Fetal PeriodWeeks 9-40

12 weeks

18 weeks

32 weeks gestation

24 weeks

16 weeks

weeks 9 12
Weeks 9-12

Head size increases

Face is well formed

Nails appear

Eyelids appear and close and fuse shut

Kidneys excrete urine

Intestines are forming; peristalsis begins

Heartbeat can be heard via ultrasound

Tooth buds appear for the baby teeth

weeks 13 16
Weeks 13-16

Lips form, facial contour develops

Ossification of bone begins

Meconium begins to form in the intestines

Hair present on scalp

Sex can be determined visually

weeks 17 20
Weeks 17-20

Hair abundant on head

Lanugo covers the body

Vernix begins to form

Myelination of spinal cord begins

Suck and swallow begin

Quickening occurs ~ 18 weeks

weeks 21 24 weeks
Weeks 21-24 weeks
  • Respiratory movement with air sacs formed
  • Surfactant production begins ~ 24 weeks
  • Brain appears mature
  • Eyebrows and eyelashes

can be seen

  • Reacts to sudden noise

with active movement

weeks 25 28
Weeks 25 - 28

Eyelids open and close

Capillaries proliferate around the lungs’ alveoli making gas exchange possible

Skin has wrinkled red appearance

Rapid brain development

weeks 29 32
Weeks 29- 32

Subcutaneous fat forms

Testes start descending

Fingernails and toenails are complete

Bones are fully developed, but still soft and pliable

weeks 33 40
Weeks 33 - 40

Limbs start to flex

Muscle tone is developed

Lanugo disappears

Body begins to store fat

Maternal antibodies transfer to the fetus

Exhibits sleep and awake patterns

functions of the placenta
Functions of the Placenta

Fetal Respirations

Fetal Nutrition

Endocrine Functions

Elimination of Wastes

Barrier against certain substances

embryonic membranes
Embryonic Membranes

At the time of Implantation, the embryonic membranes begin to form.

The two main membranes are the:

1. Chorion

2. Amnion


Thick membrane with finger-like projections called chorionic villi.

Chorionic villi contain blood vessels that are main connection with mother.

Chorionic villi produce human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

Merges with the decidua basalis to form the PLACENTA.


Smooth, glistening membrane know as the AMNION is the lining of a fluid filled space that develops around the embryo.

functions of amniotic fluid
Functions of Amniotic Fluid

Keeps the fetus at an even temperature

Cushions the fetus against possible injury

Provides place for the fetus to move easily and grow symmetrically

Fetus drinks the fluid

umbilical vessels
Umbilical Vessels
  • 1 Veins – O2 & nutrients
  • 2 Artery – CO2 & waste products rich
  • Wharton’s jelly
  • Risk factors such as environmental substances
    • Smoking
    • Alcohol
    • Drugs
    • Viruses
    • Occupational hazards

Describe the components of the process of fertilization.


Ovum released into fallopian tube—viable for 24 hr.

Sperm deposited into vagina—viable for 48 to 72 hr (highly fertile for 24 hr).

Sperm must undergo capacitation and acrosomal reaction.

Sperm penetration causes a chemical reaction that blocks more sperm penetration.

Fertilization occurs in the distal end of the fallopian tube.

Sperm enters ovum. The nuclei of the ovum and sperm unite and become a diploid zygote.


How can knowledge of the normal fertilization process assist in helping couples conceive?


How can knowing the gestational age of the fetus help in assessment for the potential effects of a teratogen?

The End