Reproductive. Anatomy and Physiology. Presented by Ann Hearn. Menstrual Cycle. Varies every 28 - 35 days The time between ovulation and menstruation is relatively constant (14 days). Follicular phase.
Anatomy and Physiology
You are responsible for reviewing the female and male reproductive structures and functions that make childbearing possible.
1. Body Temperature increase
3. Cervical Mucus Changes
a. secretory phase
b. menstrual phase
c. proliferative phase
Maturation of Ovum and Sperm Cells
Chromosomes making a
Total of 46 chromosomes
at this time. X =female,
Y = male
Outer layer of cells
INNER CELL MASS
Small finger-like projections extend from the trophoblast
And burrows into the endometrium
Implantation enables the blastocyst to absorb nutrients
After implantation, the endometrium becomes more thickened,
the cells enlarge, and is now called the Decidua.
part directly under the
portion that is pushed out by the
growing blastocyst and covers the
is not in immediate contact
with the ovum
rapid cellular multiplication and differentiation occurs.
the germ layers.
middle of the back for
the neural tube.
to form the brain and the posterior
end closes to form the spinal cord
abdomen from chest
umbilical cord occurs
32 weeks gestation
Head size increases
Face is well formed
Eyelids appear and close and fuse shut
Kidneys excrete urine
Intestines are forming; peristalsis begins
Heartbeat can be heard via ultrasound
Tooth buds appear for the baby teeth
Lips form, facial contour develops
Ossification of bone begins
Meconium begins to form in the intestines
Hair present on scalp
Sex can be determined visually
Hair abundant on head
Lanugo covers the body
Vernix begins to form
Myelination of spinal cord begins
Suck and swallow begin
Quickening occurs ~ 18 weeks
can be seen
with active movement
Eyelids open and close
Capillaries proliferate around the lungs’ alveoli making gas exchange possible
Skin has wrinkled red appearance
Rapid brain development
Subcutaneous fat forms
Testes start descending
Fingernails and toenails are complete
Bones are fully developed, but still soft and pliable
Limbs start to flex
Muscle tone is developed
Body begins to store fat
Maternal antibodies transfer to the fetus
Exhibits sleep and awake patterns
Elimination of Wastes
Barrier against certain substances
At the time of Implantation, the embryonic membranes begin to form.
The two main membranes are the:
Thick membrane with finger-like projections called chorionic villi.
Chorionic villi contain blood vessels that are main connection with mother.
Chorionic villi produce human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
Merges with the decidua basalis to form the PLACENTA.
Smooth, glistening membrane know as the AMNION is the lining of a fluid filled space that develops around the embryo.
Keeps the fetus at an even temperature
Cushions the fetus against possible injury
Provides place for the fetus to move easily and grow symmetrically
Fetus drinks the fluid
Describe the components of the process of fertilization.
Sperm deposited into vagina—viable for 48 to 72 hr (highly fertile for 24 hr).
Sperm must undergo capacitation and acrosomal reaction.
Sperm penetration causes a chemical reaction that blocks more sperm penetration.
Fertilization occurs in the distal end of the fallopian tube.
Sperm enters ovum. The nuclei of the ovum and sperm unite and become a diploid zygote.
How can knowledge of the normal fertilization process assist in helping couples conceive?
How can knowing the gestational age of the fetus help in assessment for the potential effects of a teratogen?