Chapter 1 The Major Issues. Biological Psychology. The study of the physical roots of behavior. Emphasizes: Physiology Evolution (genetics) Development Brain functioning. Brain functioning on a microscopic level: neurons and glia, the cells of the brain.
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A trait that depends largely on hereditary influences is said to have high heritability.Heredity
Researchers also study adopted children and their resemblance to their biological parents to infer the influence of heredity.Research: Twins and Adopted Children
PKU (phenylkentonuria): a genetic inability to metabolize phenylalanine that results in brain damage—unless phenylalanine is removed from the diet
Females contribute an X chromosome.
Males contribute either an X or a Y chromosome that determines the sex of the child.
If X, female
If Y, male
Inheritance through genes was demonstrated by 19th century monk Gregor Mendel
Strands of genes form chromosomesGenes
Genes/chromosomes are composed of DNADeoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Fig. 1-7, p. 12
Heterozygous for a gene: unmatched pair of genes on the two chromosomes
A dominant gene shows a strong effect in either the homozygous or heterozygous condition.
A recessive gene shows its effect only in the homozygous condition.
Pea plant flowers (parents are heterozygous for color):Genes come in pairs
Fig. 1-8, p. 13
X chromosome: genes for approximately 1500 proteins
Thus, sex-linked genes usually refer to X-linked genes. (Example: Red-green color deficiency)
Sex-limited genes are genes that are present in both sexes but mainly have an effect on one sex (Chest hair, breast size, etc.)Human Sex-linked genes
Mutation refers to a change in a single gene that is rare, random and often independent of the needs of the organism.Genetic Variation
Used by breeders
Sometimes used by human parentsArtificial Selection
“Minimalists” favor firm regulation on research and place consideration upon the type of animal used and the amount of stress induced.
“Abolitionists” maintain that all animals have the same rights as humans and any use of animals is unethical.The Use of Animals in Research