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Major Social Issues

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  1. Major Social Issues Social History 19th Century New Zealand Steve Avery Level 3 History July 2007 Tawa College

  2. NZ Human Rights Timeline • http://www.hrc.co.nz/index.php?p=448

  3. The Issues • The imbalance of the sexes and the nation’s morality • Temperance and prohibition • The rights of women Working conditions, especially sweating • Poverty • The behaviour of young people • The demise of Maori

  4. Issue 1: The Imbalance of Sexes and the Nation’s Morality Issue 1: The Imbalance of the Sexes and the Nation's Morality

  5. Women were believed necessary to: • Tie men to the role of provider and husband • Modify baser instincts Issue 1: The Imbalance of the Sexes and the Nation's Morality

  6. Men more than Women seen as the cause of: • Binges • Fighting • Prostitution • Homosexuality Issue 1: The Imbalance of the Sexes and the Nation's Morality

  7. Government Efforts • To rectify imbalance of sexes • Legislate for morality Issue 1: The Imbalance of the Sexes and the Nation's Morality

  8. Contagious Diseases Act 1 • Supposed to eliminate VD • Really an attempt to control prostitution • Any women defined by police as a prostitute could be detained • To undergo vaginal examination • If diseased confined to a reformatory until certified clean Issue 1: The Imbalance of the Sexes and the Nation's Morality

  9. Contagious Diseases Act II • Males were not tested • The Act effectively • Supported a double standard • Was ineffective Issue 1: The Imbalance of the Sexes and the Nation's Morality

  10. Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  11. Temperance and Prohibition • Important for many respectable New Zealanders • They believed the family unit the key to a stable society • Saw drink as the main threat Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  12. Increasing Concern • The number of hotels • High number of crimes involving alcohol • ‘Demon drink’ Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  13. Prohibition Movement • Led by middle class males • Most members were women • Strong in • Towns • Protestant churches Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  14. 1860s • Frontier society notorious for drunkenness • Temperance a feature of early settlement • From 1830s • Concerns about • Large number of hotels • Convictions for drunkenness • Crimes involving alcohol Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  15. NZ Alliance • Formed mid 1880s • Based on US temperance movement • Pioneered idea of achieving aims through democracy • Strength • Large towns • Evangelical churches • Sermons • Newspapers • Rallies Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  16. WCTU Women’s Christian Temperance Union • US inspired • Visit by the American Mary Clement Leavitt • Branches formed • 600 members at most • Very active Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  17. WCTU cont. • Goal was social purity • Active on a number of issues • Believed women needed the vote to purify society with laws on prohibition Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  18. WCTU cont. • Gaining the vote part of larger social purifying reform • ‘God’s police’ • Sex for marriage and reproduction Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  19. Prohibitionists and Maidens • Thought educated people would come to their senses • Concentration on ridding pubs of barmaids Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  20. Catholics • Wanted wine in communion • Against ‘woserism’ • Irish influential Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  21. Presbyterians • Otago and Southland • Strongly prohibitionist as drink • The root of evil • The cause of poverty Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  22. Impact on Elections • Women just as divided as men • Most adults were drinkers Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  23. Emotional Issue • Strong feelings generated by the issue Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  24. Concern among Maori about drink • Led to King Country being dry Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  25. Stout • Prohibitionist • Ex Premier (1884 – 7) • Pro women’s suffrage • Chief Justice (1899 – 1926) • Lost power struggle with Seddon • His 1891 Bill unsuccessful by two votes Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  26. Results 1 • Pubs licensed by JPs • Sunday trading prohibited • Pub hours restricted 6am – 10 Pm Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  27. Results 2 • Licensing Act 1893 • Districts based on electorates established • Licence for three years • In electorates where 60% voted no they had to go dry Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  28. Results 3 • Only 13 districts went dry • Were four elections with national majorities for prohibition • Vote for no licence rose 1896 – 1911 • The Act established barriers to prohibition Issue 2: Temperance and Prohibition

  29. Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  30. Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women • Lost rights when they married • Had no separate legal status • Husband sole guardian of children • A man could divorce wife for adultery • Women could only divorce for aggravated adultery • Savings were the husband’s property • Women no vote Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  31. Early Demand for Rights – 1860s • ‘Poly Plum’ in Auckland papers • 1871 Mary Colclough ('Polly Plum') gave her first public lecture on the rights of women, including their right to vote. • Letters to and from 'Polly Plum' that appeared in the New Zealand Herald in 1871 • http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/politics/womens-suffrage/suffrage-milestones Issue 3I: Concern about the Rights of Women

  32. Camellia Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  33. Mary Muller 1 • 1820 - 1901 • Husband Resident Magistrate and Provincial secretary • He was rigidly anti-feminist • She used pen-name ‘Femina’ writing for Nelson Examiner • Influenced the Married Women’s Property Protection Acts of 1860 and 1870 Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  34. Mary Muller 2 Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  35. ‘God’s police Purify politics Sex for Marriage Reproduction Condemned Prostitution Contraception Corsets Mixed bathing Barmaids Victorian double standard Vote a Part of Larger Reform Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  36. Medicine for Society Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  37. Cleansing Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  38. Kate Sheppard Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  39. Kate Sheppard cont. • 1837 – 1934 • Member of Trinity Congregational church • Husband well-off storekeeper and Christchurch councillor • Able organiser • 1887 at 39 became superintendent of the franchise department of the WCTU • 1896 first president of the National Council of Women Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  40. Kate Sheppard cont • Organised a series of petitions over six years • Built up sympathetic public opinion • Able organiser and publicist • First editor of White Ribbon WCTU’s publication Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  41. 1893 Petition Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  42. 1893 Petition cont. • The resulting roll contained 23,853 signatures and, with the addition of 7,000 further signatures before it was presented to Parliament, the petition attained the suffragists' original target of 30,000 signatories. • The roll was presented to Parliament with great drama. John Hall, Member of Parliament and suffrage supporter, brought it into the house and unrolled it down the central aisle of the debating chamber until it hit the end wall with a thud. Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  43. 1893 • Electoral Bill secured a majority in both houses • Despite Seddon’s opposition Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  44. 'The Summit at Last‘: New Zealand Graphic, 21 July 1894 Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  45. Reasons why Women Won the Vote 1893: Charlotte Grimshaw • Kate Sheppard Franchise Superintendent of WCTU and supporters a key • Campaigned for vote as next step to equality • There had been laws on education and property top benefit women • Message appealed to egalitarianism of some male politicians Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  46. Reasons why Women Won the Vote 1893: Dalziel • Vote seen as an extension of women’s role as homemaker and moral guardian Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  47. Reasons why Women Won the Vote 1893: Sandra Coney • The skill and dedication of Sheppard vital • Made very effective use of the press • Drew in feminists who were not WCTU • Organised petition • Hall was chose as an ally in parliament Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  48. Impact of Women’s Suffrage • An argument that women voted with their husbands • Reinforced women’s domestic role • Argument that women decided for themselves • This caused the Liberal Party to deal with social issues Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  49. Impact of Women’s SuffrageCont. • National Council of Women replaced WCTU • Women still could not be MPs Issue 3: Concern about the Rights of Women

  50. Issue 4: Poverty Issue 4: Poverty