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The Farmers Take Their Stand

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  1. The Farmers Take Their Stand Lyman Frank Baum-The Wonderful Wizard of OZ 1880’s 1890s Farmers Struggle—weather/debt/laws/RR/Price Fixing The Greenback Movement National Grange of Patrons of Husbandry aka The Grange

  2. Farmers Responses • 1877 Granger Movement • Goals: coin more silver/monitor interest rates/high RR rates. • Granger Laws---4 states passed these laws 1. Max. RR rates 2. Max. Grain Rates 3. State RR Commissions -Constitutional? Munn v. Illinois 1877-Interstate Commerce Act 1886

  3. Grangers became Farmers Alliances • They tried several ideas to gain power by working in huge numbers • Bulking=price fixing • By1890 all of the Alliances formed: National Farmers Alliance Goals: Increased silver coinage Printing of more paper money No Private Banks New Federal Banking System Graduated Income Tax Government Ownership of Public Transportation Direct Election of Senators No land ownership by foreigners Immigration Restrictions 8 Hour Work Day Lower Tariff

  4. Grangers to Populist • The Grangers were quite radical, however they did get much of their program adopted---in due time!----(Progressive Movt.) • Their problems were 2 fold: their program was aimed to land owners and to white farmers, thus excluding blacks and city dwellers. • Populist or People’s Movement

  5. Populist • Populist were led by Ignatius Donnelly and Mary Elizabeth Lease---they would combine the new People’s Party (Populist Party) • Populist attempted to unite discontented Farmers and attempted to improve their economic conditions by purposing the following: Increase the money supply • with free and unlimited silver and gold at the legal ratio of 16 to 1. • Using the Interstate Commerce Act 1877 to regulate RR and prevent discrimination against small customers • Organize cooperative marketing societies • Support the candidacy of William Jennings Bryan in the 1896 Election

  6. Populist • Populist were led by Ignatius Donnelly and Mary Elizabeth Lease---they would combine the new People’s Party (Populist Party) • Populist attempted to unite discontented Farmers and attempted to improve their economic conditions by purposing the following: Increase the money supply • with free and unlimited silver and gold at the legal ratio of 16 to 1. • Using the Interstate Commerce Act 1877 to regulate RR and prevent discrimination against small customers • Organize cooperative marketing societies • Support the candidacy of William Jennings Bryan in the 1896 Election

  7. Reasons why the Populist Failed • Western and Southern Farmers disagreed on politics • Racism • Higher Agriculture prices due to immigration • The Democratic Party took on many of the Populist program • William Jennings Bryan lost in 1896.

  8. William Jennings Bryan

  9. US Expansionism • American Imperialism • 19th Century Americans---special mission John Winthrop “city on a hill” • Monroe Doctrine 1823: Spanish colonies in South and central America began to assert their independence from Spain---President Monroe warned Europeans to stay out of the Western Hemisphere • In a world that was evil, Americans believed they/we stood out for a transforming good • Americans have rarely been content to be models for other societies to emulate, however. • This requires patience and passivity, two qualities not prevalent in Americans. • Instead, we often have forcefully imposed our ideas and institutions on others. • We mean well, but…………………………………………………..

  10. Early Expansionism • A consistent expression of continental expansionism marked the first century of American Independence: • Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana • Desires for Florida and Canada • The Mexican War/Manifest Destiny • Pushing the Native-American Indians from one coast to the other • Seward’s Purchase of Alaska—Seward always had a vision of a “greater America”…not much came of it immediately (Alaska and the Midway Islands)

  11. Imperialism • The idea of Imperialism was abhorrent to most Americans. • Not only because of high ideals, but often of racism: some saw peoples of color as barbarians and heathens • Little motivation to reach out and become embroiled with foreign nations • Most Americans did not concern themselves with Foreign policy………

  12. Changing AttitudesTwo Important books • Josiah Strong Our Country---1885 • Spoke of a Sense of Mission---a clip! • It was to spread Christianity to heathen peoples. • Appealed strongly to middle-class Protestants. • Alfred Thayer Mahan The Influence of Sea Power upon History---1890

  13. The Influence of Sea Power upon History 1890 Alfred Thayer Mahan Naval officer and historian Naval War College Darwinian Struggle Huge influence on other military leaders “Foreign Policy Elite” T. Roosevelt, Henry Cabot Lodge, and Elihu Root Coaling Stations

  14. Foreign Policy/Expansionism? • The “Foreign Policy Elite”--- a group of Eastern Republicans ( TR, Lodge, Root) feared that we were being left behind while England, France and Germany, etc. built overseas empires—if we did not continue to grow, we might wither and die. • Also, Sen. Albert Beveridge of Indiana argued for both markets and coaling stations • Quote……. • And despite the depression of the 1890s US output was growing. We led the world in production of farm machinery……….

  15. Expansion • From 1866 to 1900 US Exports tripled • Manufactures and politicians had their appetites whetted---wanted new markets….that led to a new spirit of competitiveness and feistiness!!! • Hawaii, Venezuela, and Cuba and SPAM War next week!