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SOL Standards: E ssential Knowledge

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SOL Standards: E ssential Knowledge

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  1. SOL Standards: Essential Knowledge • Axum: • Location relative to the Ethiopian Highlands and Nile River • Christian Kingdom • Zimbabwe: • Location relative to the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers and the Indian Ocean Coast • City of “Great Zimbabwe” as capital of a prosperous empire • West African Kingdoms: • Location of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai empires relative to Niger River and the Sahara • Importance of gold and salt to trans-Saharan trade • City of Timbuktu as center of trade and learning • Roles of animism and Islam

  2. The Story of Africa Geography & African Civilizations

  3. Satellite View

  4. Africa’s Size 4 6 0 0 M I L E S 5000 MILES • Second largest continent  11,700,000 sq. mi. • 10% of the world’s population. • 2 ½ times the size of the U. S.

  5. Geography & African Civilizations • Geography of Africa • 2nd largest continent in the world • 4,600 miles from east to west; 5,000 miles from north to south • Narrow coastlines lie on either side of a central plateau • Waterfalls or rapids form as rivers drop to the coast from the plateau making navigation impossible to or from the coast • Coastline has fewharbors,ports, or inlets • Large deserts: the Sahara in the north and the Kalahari in the south • Large rainforests with mahogany and teak trees that reach 150 feet tall • Most people live on the savannas or grassy plains which include mountainous highlands and swampy tropical stretches • The NileRiver flows north in northeast Africa

  6. Mediterranean Sea Bodies Of Water Red Sea NileRiver NigerRiver L. Chad--> <--Gulf of Aden L. Albert--> Congo River L. Victoria L. Tanganyika-> Indian Ocean Atlantic Ocean Zambezi River LimpopoRiver OrangeRiver Pacific Ocean

  7. The Mighty Nile River:“Longest River in the World”

  8. The Niger River Basin • Covers 7.5% of the continent. • Extends over 10 countries. • 2,600 miles long.

  9. The African Plateau

  10. The African Savannah:13 million sq. mi.

  11. The Sahara Desert

  12. African Rain Forest • Annual rainfall of up to 17 ft. • Rapid decomposition (very humid). • Covers 37 countries. • 15% of the land surface of Africa.

  13. Geography & African Civilizations • Customs of Early Peoples • Early peoples were nomadic • Experts believe agriculture started in Africa roughly by 6,000 B.C. • The family was important and African people organized into familygroups • Many early cultures’ religions included elements of animism • Animism: a religion in which spirits play an important role in dailylife • History was kept orally, not written down • Bantu-speaking people migrated south and east leading to: • Spread of farming techniques • Territorialwars • Intermarriages • Spread of technology such as copper, bronze, and iron work

  14. Empire of Ghana Website

  15. Natural Resources

  16. Geography & African Civilizations • Early Civilizations of West Africa • Empire of Ghana 800 A.D. • Became a rich kingdom by taxingtraders who traveled through their lands • Gold and salt were important & desirable trade items • By 800, Ghana was an empire • Only the king could own gold; acted as religious leader, chief judge and military commander • Eventually Ghana’s rulers convertedtoIslam and had to learn Arabic; much of the population neverconverted • 1076 Muslim Almoravidsconquered Ghana and disrupted the gold-salt trade • Ghana neverregained its power

  17. Gold-Salt Trade Berbers SALT GOLD

  18. Empire of Mali Website

  19. Geography & African Civilizations • Empire of Mali • Emerged by 1235 south of Ghana; Mali’s wealth was also build on gold • Sundiata militarily took over Ghana; peace and prosperity followed • Some of Mali’s next rulers became Muslims and built mosques • MansaMusa (Muslim) divided Mali into provinces and appointed governors • Within 50 years of Mansa Musa, Mali’s gold trade shifted east and his successors were unable to govern the empire effectively

  20. Sundiata [1210-1260] “Lion Prince”

  21. Mansa Musa [r. 1312-1337]

  22. Empire of Songhai Website

  23. Geography & African Civilizations • Empire of Songhai 1400s • Capital was Gao; extended their territory to the large bend in the Niger River • Two great Muslim leaders: Sunni Ali & Askia Muhammad • Created an empire through military conquest and efficient tax collecting • Unfortunately, Songhai lacked modernweapons • Defeated by Moroccaninvaders and ended 1,000 years of W. African power

  24. Sunni Ali [r.1464-1492]

  25. Askia Mohammed [r.1493-1529]

  26. Kingdom of Axum [300-700]

  27. Geography & African Civilizations • Early Civilizations of East Africa • Aksum Empire • Located on the horn of Africa on a plateau on the Red Sea • Conquered the Kush people who had been pushed south by the Assyrians • Traders from Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India, and the Roman Empire travelled though Adulis, Aksum’s chief seaport • They traded salt, rhinoceros horns, ivory, & gold • Height of empire was 325-360 under strong military leader Ezana • Monotheistic: worshiped Mahrem and believed king was his descendent • Aksum later becomes Christian • Depletion of soil and forests as well as Islamic invaders caused decline

  28. Stele, Ezana’s Royal Tomb,Aksum (4c)

  29. AXUM’SACHIEVEMENTS Built Stelae Controlled NE African Trade Written Language Terrace Farming Spread Christianity in No. & E. Africa

  30. Geography & African Civilizations • Early Civilizations of Southern Africa • GreatZimbabwe 1000 A.D. • City built by Shona people that turned into an empire built on gold trade • Leaders taxed traders and travelers who ventured through • Great Zimbabwe was abandoned by 1450; no clear reason why • Much of what is known about Great Zimbabwe comes from impressiveruins

  31. Great Zimbabwe ruins

  32. Great Zimbabwe Street

  33. Mutapa

  34. Geography & African Civilizations • Mutapa • According to Shonalegend, a man left Great Zimbabwe and settled a new site with fertile soil • A leader named Mutota dominated northern Shona people and were dubbed mwenemutapa meaning conqueror; thus the name Mutapa • Conquered all of modern day Zimbabwe • Gold was a cornerstone of their economy • By the 1500s the Portuguese unsuccessfully attempted to conquer Mutapa • This signaled increasing Europeaninterference in Africa for many centuries