Physical Geology
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Physical Geology. Exploring Our Wonderful World Learning the materials that comprise our planet (and others) Investigating the processes that transform these earth materials and the environments of change Discovering how to read the earth and the history stored in the rocks.

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Physical Geology

  • Exploring Our Wonderful World

    • Learning the materials that comprise our planet (and others)

    • Investigating the processes that transform these earth materials and the environments of change

    • Discovering how to read the earth and the history stored in the rocks

Dr. James M. Martin-Hayden

Associate Professor

(419) 530-2634

[email protected]

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Storage Tank



Water Table

Floating Gasoline

Dissolved Gasoline

Groundwater Flow

Aquifer of sedimentary rock


A. Dr. Jamie Martin-Hayden

  • Hydrogeologiststudying groundwater resources and contamination (Environmental Geology)

  • Special interest in the geology and hydrogeology of theOak Openings Region

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  • Text:Essentials of Geologyby Wicander and Monroe, 4th edition, Thompson Brooks/Cole, 2006.

  • Course Website

    • Syllabus

    • Homework Posting

    • Other Web Links /Faculty/Hayden/Courses/PhysGeol/


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World of GeologyGeology is all around us.

  • 1. Geological Resources

  • 2. “The Environment”

  • 3. Geological Hazards

  • 4. Planetary Geology

  • 5. Engineering

  • 6. Landforms and Surface Processes

  • 7. Artistic Inspiration



Geology forms the basis of our great civilizations

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The Cradle of CivilizationSprung from geology of the region

Tigris River, Iraq

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World of Geology

Geological Resources

  • The Cradle of Civilization (Fertile Crescent)

  • Development limited by availability, e.g., soil, water, energy

  • Conflicts based on resources, e.g., water, minerals, oil, energy…

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Geologic Resources

  • Mineral Resources: metals, fertilizers, minerals, petroleum, construction

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Geologic Resources

  • Mineral Resources: metals, fertilizers, minerals, petroleum, construction

  • Water resources: Lakes, Rivers, Springs, Groundwater

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Geologic Resources

  • Mineral Resources: e.g.,Metals, fertilizers, minerals, petroleum, construction

  • Water resources: e.g.,Lakes, Rivers, Springs, Groundwater

  • Energy:

    e.g.,Oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, silicon, hydroelectric (dams), hydrothermal (Earth’s heat)

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Geologic Resources

  • The Geologist’s Job

    • Locating and Characterizing quantity and quality of geologic resources

    • Extracting geologic resources efficiently

    • Assessing environmental effects of extraction and use

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Misuse of ResourcesDesiccation of the Aral Sea, Kazakhstan

See Page 6

Aral Sea

Over Time










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Overuse of Geologic Resources

(Geology in the News)

  • 1.7 billion are joining the “consumer class” and the environment can’t sustain this standard of living. (Worldwatch Institute, 2004)

  • Emissions of Greenhouse gasses are accelerating global warming. (IGPCC, 2007)

  • Climate change is accelerating melting of glaciers and driving mass extinctions (The Centre of Biodiversity and Conservation, Leeds University, UK)

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Environmental Geology

  • Environmental Sciences: How we influence the earth

  • Geologic Hazards: How geology influences us

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Geology in the News

San Andreas Fault

  • Two die in 6.5 magnitude Earthquake near San Lois Obispo California

  • Earthquake triggers mudslides

Geologic Hazards

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Assessing Risk

“Major Quake Likely to Strike San Francisco Bay Region Between 2003 and 2032”

Geologic Hazards

  • Assessing Risks

  • Avoiding Risks

  • Preventing Damage

  • Predicting Impact


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EarthquakeBam, Iran


from AP

  • A Magnitude 6.5 Earthquake hits a stone- and mud-house city of 100,000 in Iran 12-26-03

    • 30,000 Dead

    • 30,000 Refugees

  • US sends aid and releases sanctions

  • Relations improved

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Geological Hazards

Volcanoes (pg. 108)

Floods (see pgs., 284)

Landslides (see pg. 250)


(pg. 202)

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Geology in Engineering

Slope Failure Risk Assessment and Control

To prevent slope failure engineers must understand the geology that forms and controls the slope

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Geology in Engineering

Committee member John Burland, an engineer, promoted soil extraction as the best way to save the tower.

Engineers use knowledge of geology to design, protect and correct structures

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Planetary Geology

Geologists lead the mission

“Robot geologist” explores Mars

Steve Squyres says that, even though the MER's work will have just begun, he'll feel like celebrating the moment he's got "six wheels in the dirt."

Guided by MER specialists back on Earth, each rover will travel dozens of yards a day while investigating sites of interest.

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Geologists Study Mars


  • Canyons indicate a geologically active planet

  • Rock layers, Gullies, and Sand Dunes; all geological landforms

  • The largest chasm and volcano in the solar system

5 miles deep

1,860 mi

Valles Marineris

Olympus Mons

15 miles high

340 mi

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Landforms and Surface Processes

H.C. Berann (1915-1999)

Yosemite National Park, 1987

  • Glaciers (ch 14)

  • Mass Wasting (ch 11)

  • Streams (ch 12)

  • Shorelines (ch 16)

  • Deserts (ch 15)

  • Ground water (ch13)

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Historical Geology

(Chapter 18)

  • Deciphering Earth History and

  • Charting the evolution of life

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Landforms and Surface Processes

Albert Bierstadt (1830-1902) Merced River, Yosemite Valley 1866, Metropolitan Museum of Art “The Hudson River School”


19th Century Japanese

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Geology in Art

Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)

Mont Sainte Victoire, 1900


ALBERT BIERSTADT (1830-1902)The Oregon Trail, 1869

Buttler Institute of

American Art,

Youngstown, Ohio

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Objectives of Chapter 1

  • Introduce the broad field of Geology

    • Importance of understanding our planet

    • Specialties in geology (pg. 8)

    • How effects us (pg. 9-11)

  • Origin and Structure of the Earth

    • Formation of the solar system (pg. 13)

    • Differentiation of the proto earth

    • Zones of the Earth (Fig 1.11)

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Objectives of Chapter 1

  • Introduce Earth Systems and Plate Tectonics

    • Convection driving plate motion (pg. 15)

    • Plates and plate boundaries (pg. 16-17)

    • Geologic phenomena and landforms at plate boundaries

    • Plate tectonics and the scientific method (pg. 15-16)

  • Introduction to the Geologic Time Scale

    • Eons, Eras and Periods (pg. 21)