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Chapter 5

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Chapter 5

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  1. Chapter 5 Monksand Knights

  2. Paragraph 5.1 • Lords andvassals

  3. EmperorCharlemagne • (= Karel de Grote) • In 799 nobles in Rome attacked the pope, leader of the CatholicChurch. • Theystabbedhim, but he escaped. • He fledto Germany, andasked the help fromCharlemagne.

  4. Charlemagne sent the pope back, withsoldierstoportecthim. • A year later, Charlemagnecameto Rome. • He knelt down toprayand the pope put a crown on his head. • God had crownedhimemperor. • He was the first emperor in 300 years!

  5. Clovis • Charlemagne was emperor of the Franks since 768. • The Frankish empire had been founded 250 yearsearlier, when the Western Roman Empire disappeared. • It was the beginning of the MiddleAges. • In the year 500.

  6. The leader of the Franks around 500, was Clovis. • He conqueredalmostall of the Roman province of Gaul. ( Belgium and France) • His sonsandgrandsonsbrutallyfoughteachotherso the empire broke up in smaller pieces.

  7. But Charlemagne’sfather put all the kingdoms back again, nowit was 1 big empire again!

  8. Charlemagne’sconquests • Charlemagne expanded the empire: • He beat the Saxons in Germany • He beat the Frisians in the Northern Netherlands. • He conquered the rest of Germany, and Italy. • Alsoconquered Hungary and Croatia; he beat the Avars: ferociousnomadicpeople. • SoCharlemagne had a big empire!

  9. The travellingking • After the Roman time was gone: the MiddleAgesstarted. Thisperiod is called: Time of Monksand Knights. • Charlemagne had a big empire torulewhich was difficult. • Reasonswere:

  10. It’s the earlyMiddleAges, the roadswerereally bad, so bad communication in the empire. • Greco-Roman culture was gone: onlyclergycouldreadandwrite. ( Charlemagnecouldread but notwrite) • Citiesweregone, there was no trade.

  11. Charlemagnetravelledaround his empire, to show toeveryonewho was ruling the empire.

  12. The feudal system • Charlemagne had his empire ruledbydukesandcounts. • These wereallnoblesthat made anoath of alliance. • The noblemenpromissedto serve, adviseand assist him. • The noblemen is now a vassalandCharlemagne is his lord.

  13. The vassal is nowruler of a small piece of land ( county or duchy) • It is in loan! • He can keep the profits of the land. • In return, he had togovernit, in name op Charlemagne. • He had toadministerjusticeandmaintain order andsafety.

  14. The vassalalso had togivesoldiersto the king. • This system is called: Feudal system or feudalism.

  15. A dangerous time • Charlemagnedied in 814. • The empire fell apart. • 2 empireswereformed: • West Francia (later France) and East Francia. ( later Germany)

  16. The dukesandcountswith the land they had in loan of Charlemagne, startedtouse the land as theirown. Theyforgotit was a loan. • It becametheirown property. • The title of landlordbecamehereditary(= erfelijk) • The lords appointedtheirownvassals, whogot a smaller piece of land, andruleit as well.

  17. The lowervassals, werecalledrearvassals. • Theyalsotreated the land as theirown. • Theyignored the lords completely.

  18. Wars broke out between these kings, dukes, countsandrearvassals. • Therewere gangs of robbers en marauderslike the Vikings, invading Europe.

  19. People wantedtoprotectthemselves. • Theystarted building fortressesandhiredknightstodefendthem. • Fortresseswereoften made of wood, with a moatandfences. Later theywere made of stone.

  20. Knights • Medievalarmiesusedcavalry: armedsoldiers on horses. • Because of stirrups ( stijgbeugels) theywerefirmlyseated: ride a horse andcarry the armourandweapons was easy! • Theyalsowore a chainmail: maliënkolder.

  21. Orders of the Knighthood • The first knightswerenotnobles. • Theywerepaidbylocal lords, tobuytheirarmoury. • This way: lords had theirown private army.

  22. Over time, knightsrose in standing andeventuallyknighthoodbecameonlypossiblefornobles. • From 1100 on, everyknight had tobe a member of a nobleorder of knighthood.

  23. You have to prove courage andskill, thenyoucouldbe made a knight: • Kneelbefore the king or nobleman. • The noblemanwouldtouch the man’sshoulderswith a swordandgivehim the heraldicsymbols of his order of knighthood.

  24. Knights wereexpectedtobechivalrous: (ridderlijk) • Courage, loyaltyandjustice. Andsometimesbe in love with a womanthat was unavailable. • This was calledcourtly love. • Manystoriesweretoldaboutknights.

  25. Romanticchivalricstorieswereoften in rhymeandtoldtonoblesbytravelling troubadours. • For instance: Karel ende elegast. • Charlemagnebecamefamousbecause of all the heroicstories.

  26. Tournaments • For entertainment, andto prove their courage, knightsorganisedtournaments. • The knightswouldwear the coats of arms: wapenschilden of theirownknighthood or country.

  27. The end