Assessment For Learning. Instruction, Assessment, and Reporting that SUPPORTS Learning Misty McBrierty Director of Curriculum. “ Changing in Education is like engine repair in flight”.
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Assessment For Learning Instruction, Assessment, and Reporting that SUPPORTS Learning Misty McBrierty Director of Curriculum “ Changing in Education is like engine repair in flight”
Inuksuk: When you look at an inuksuk you are seeing the thoughts of another person left upon the land… just like words in a book - Norman HallendyThese markers in the tundra tell you someone was here and you are on the right path!!! That is the point of Assessment for Learning! All your conversations should be focused on what students need to learn and how to get them there… Not what you teach. “Gone are the days that students are passively receiving teaching… Here are the days they should be actively engaged in learning”
Assessment For LearningStudents can reach any target they know about and that holds still for them -Rick Stiggins Point to Ponder: Is what you do at the classroom level promoting learning or is it a detriment to learning? "It is what teachers think, what teachers believe, and what teachers do at the level of the classroom that ultimately shapes the kind of learning that young people get." ~ Andy Hargreaves and Michael Fullan Black and Wiliam (1998) “Summarizing a decade of classroom assessment research conducted internationally, conclude that involving students in assessment and increasing the amount of descriptive feedback while decreasing the evaluative feedback has a more powerful positive impact on learning that any educational innovation ever documented.”
Summative vs. Formative AssessmentWe must constantly remind ourselves that the ultimate purpose of evaluation is to enable students to evaluate themselves – Arthur Costa Formative Assessment: These are part of the instructional process. It should be incorporated into the classroom process and provides information to adjust teaching; These are completed on the way to mastery or proficiency. These are not used as part of the grading and reporting system Summative Assessment: These are given periodically to determine at a particular point in time what student know and do not know. Final Declaration of Mastery or Proficiency.These are generally used as part of the grading and reporting system
Large Scale Summative Assessment What is large Scale Assessment? State, federal tests (NECAP, MCAS, NAEP, TIMMS, SAT,ACT….2014… Smarter Balanced Common Core Assessment) Purpose of Large Scale Summative Assessment A. To evaluate the systemic learning at the district level; Effectiveness of programs and curriculums B. Inform student learning relative to content standards; this is not helpful necessarily at the student level but can inform system of curriculum strengths and weaknesses. C. Make curriculum and instruction adjustments vertically and horizontally; Set systemic goals for improvement D. Provide feedback on certain types of learning E. Student Placement in some cases What Large Scale Summative Assessments cannot do… A. Provide information at the instructional level for individual students B. Provide descriptive feedback to students to improve C. Support learner during the process of learning
Classroom Summative Assessment… We can tell a little more of the truth. In doing so, it turns out that we can avoid pretending that a student’s whole performance or intelligence can be summed up in one number -Peter Elbow Examples: Unit Tests, Performance Tasks, Projects, Reports, Benchmark Assessments, End of Term exams, Essays, Presentations • These are part of the grading and reporting • Should be standards based; Criterion Referenced; and the assessment tool should match the target being assessed • Should always be built before learning begins; Conversations with colleagues on what is acceptable mastery is a must… • Criterion should have been established if possible with students • Rubrics for assessing performance are published and made explicit to the audience you are reporting to (students, parents, school) • Should not include any formative components • Should not be optional for students • Should be no more than 30-40% of the Classroom Assessment
Example Summative Assessment: Science Inquiry Scientific Inquiry Rubric Students either design their own experiment and/or Evaluate experiment for effective design. This becomes a summative assessment when students are ready to perform the task independently after practice and descriptive feedback in relation to the criteria. Sorting Assessment Questions by Learning Targets/Benchmarks: Sample Assessment Cover Sheet Using the benchmarks/standards/SWBAT… as the guide for your questions, sorting them, then reporting based on standards allow you and the students to see students are doing well and needing more instruction… It also allows a summative assessment become formative in some areas if necessary
Formative AssessmentCertainty stunts thought, in ourselves and others…. Thought flourishes as questions are asked, not as answers are found – Frank Smith • Examples: Descriptive Feedback in relation to criteria or rubrics, Setting Criteria, Observations, Questioning Strategies, Practice problems, Self reflection strategies (pause and think, exit passes, journals, etc.), student record keeping, goal setting, self and peer assessment, collaborative work, homework • Formative by definition means during formation so this should never be part of a grade; it during the learning • Should be descriptive feedback in relation to criteria; Not Good Job, a grade, a sticker, or anything else that is summative in nature • Should be daily, minute by minute, clear, and timely • Students are involved most if not all the time!!! • Provides evidence of where the student is at in relationship to the target being assessed; provides the teacher with information so they know what to do next for the learner • Should be 60-70% of the classroom assessment practice • “When we assess, we are gathering information about student learning that informs our teaching and helps students learn more. We may teach differently , based on what we find as we assess” http://youtu.be/rJxFXjfB_B4 (Rick Wormeli on Formative Assessment)
Sample Formative Assessment: Science Inquiry • Model experimental design and have students critique the design in groups, whole class, or independently • Students are given a topic and asked to design a controlled experiment in groups…. Collaboration should never be graded but descriptive feedback from peers and teacher is part of the process • Students independently write up an experimental design based on their own testable hypothesis…. Descriptive feedback given before performing the experiment • Reflection on experimental design as well as peer critique • Students are given a experimental design write up and asked to critique it using the established rubric; They should explain what meets the criteria and what doesn’t and why “ All formative work should lead to the student’s success in the summative assessment independently”
Bridging Classroom Assessment with Large Scale Assessments Ensure students are learning to mastery using effective formative and summative classroom assessments Analyze released items for format, topics, and types of questions Use released items from large scale tests part of daily/weekly classroom culture (they can be homework, DO NOWs, collaborative work) Have released items in unit, trimester, or semester exams (be sure to choose well written release items that match the learning targets) Create end of year assessments using released items in a format similar to the actual test; especially in areas such as science that are not tested every year.
Educational Malpractice Malpractices in School: Zeros, grading homework (practice/preparation/formative assessment), points off for late work, extra credit, unclear learning targets/criteria, assessment tools that do not match target, lack of clear protocols, little to no relationship building with students, lack of subject or pedagogy knowledge, use of inappropriate and detrimental discipline practices, using the grading system for compensation or punishment, ignoring data that could inform instruction and improve learning Definition: Wrongful or negligent acts on the part of teachers or schools that result (or may result) in student detriments, especially including the failure of students to learn. Rick Wormeli on DO OVERS…. http://youtu.be/TM-3PFfIfvI
Grading and Reporting Practices that Support Learning….. Doug Reeves on Toxic Grading Practices: http://youtu.be/jduiAnm-O3w “School improvement expert Bob Marzano asks, Why would anyone want to change current grading practices? The answer is quite simple: grades are so imprecise that they are almost meaningless.” -Marzano 2000, p.1 What should grades look like? Criterion based Summative only; no formative or non achievement factors Report learning at the ranking period… however students are allowed to redo and come back to areas they haven’t met Report student behaviors and non achievement factors (effort, participation, collaboration, homework completion) separately * Grade should never be used for compensation or discipline; Those are behavior systems that have no place in the achievement record.
SO WHAT’S NEXT FOR YOU, YOUR TEAM, YOUR SCHOOL? PLEASE FILL OUT THE REFLECTION SHEET AND TURN IN BEFORE YOU LEAVE. PICK UP A CERTIFICATE OF ATTENDENCE AND YOU CAN PUT THIS INTO MY LEARNING PLAN AND COUNT THIS AS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT NEXT STEPS…. What is one thing you are going to change in your classroom practice? How will your grade level team, curriculum team, school adjust to support student learning? What support can the administration give you on your journey to learn and improve practices to support students?