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ICT and Teacher Training. Case studies from across the world. TIM UNWIN 6th September 2006. Outline: context and case studies. A focus on challenges facing teachers SITE and UNESCO frameworks Case Studies African experiences China Jordan Education Initiative UK Singapore

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ICT and Teacher Training

Case studies from across the world


6th September 2006

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Outline: context and case studies

  • A focus on challenges facing teachers

  • SITE and UNESCO frameworks

  • Case Studies

    • African experiences

    • China

    • Jordan Education Initiative

    • UK

    • Singapore

  • Core principles for success

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  • Teacher training is arguably the most important part of the education system

    • Yet it is often ignored

    • Why?

  • The scale of the global problem

    • In 2002, UNESCO estimated that 3 million new teachers were necessary if the MDGs were to be delivered

    • 30,000 untrained teachers in Ghana’s schools

    • More teachers are dying of HIV/AIDS in Zambia than are being trained

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  • ICTs often seen as being a ‘solution’

    • Delivering relevant quality instructional material

    • Supporting student self-learning

      • Any where and any time

    • Enhancing teachers’ skills and knowledge

  • But

    • ICTs are also part of a fundamental shift in teaching style

      • From didactic to constructivist

    • They are not the ‘cheap’ solution that many people have often argued

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  • Need to distinguish between distance education, and the use of ICTs to support it

    • Distance education (Perraton, 2000) can:

      • Provide trainee teachers with a general education

      • Improve teachers’ subject knowledge

      • Teach them about children, the curriculum and pedagogy

      • Develop classroom skills

    • A wide range of ICTs (not just computers and Internet)

      • Radio, TV, mobiles, PDAs, computers, Internet..

  • Focus on ICT4E not on E4ICT

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Existing Frameworks: SITE

  • SITE (Society for IT and Teacher Education)

    • http://www.aace.org/site

  • Three key principles:

    • Technology should be infused into the entire teacher education programme

    • Technology should be introduced in context

    • Student teachers should experience innovative technology-supported learning environments in their own teacher education programme

  • Why are these so often ignored?

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Existing Frameworks: UNESCO

  • UNESCO (2002) framework

    • Key role of UNESCO Bangkok in ICT-education

  • Strategies

    • From web-based lessons to multimedia use

  • Supporting components

    • From curriculum resources to community support

  • Means of professional development

    • From mentoring to collaborative research

  • Need for a formal change management process to be in place

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  • Open University (UK) and Fort Hare University (South Africa) DEEPER project

    • Using hand-held PDAs for teachers

    • Focusing on

      • The advantages of handheld computers for teacher professional development

      • How handheld computers complement other professional resources

      • What curriculum development are enabled by these devices

    • Funding by bridges.org

    • http://www.open.ac.uk/deep

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IMFUNDO’s African experiences

  • Vast physical wastage

    • Hardware underutilised

      • 24/7 principles for sustainability!

      • Glorified typewriters!

    • Hardware broken or ineffective

    • High costs of Internet access

  • Huge educational wastage

    • Insufficient relevant content

    • Multimedia potential underused

    • Networking and interaction ineffective because of lack of connectivity

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IMFUNDO’s African experiences

  • Principles of good practice in effective use of ICT for teacher training in Africa

    • Shift from ‘education for ICT’ to ‘ICT for education’

    • Integrating ICTs across the curriculum

    • Combining pre- and in-service initiatives

    • Need for relevant locally produced content

    • The creation of real partnerships

    • Sustainability built in from the beginning

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IMFUNDO’s African experiences

  • Framework for use of ICT in African teacher training

    • Strategic leadership

    • Ownership and involvement of all stakeholders

    • Integration within national ICT policies and implementation strategies

    • Shaping implementation within context of infrastructure available

    • Value of awareness raising workshops

    • Clear programme for pre- and in-service training

    • Sustainability through community-led agendas

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China: Gansu

  • EU Gansu Basic Education Support Programme (2001-2005)

    • €15 million from EU

    • € 2 million from China

  • Focus on Gansu’s poorest 41 counties

  • Key emphasis on teacher training

    • From didactic mode to student-centred learning

    • Using ICTs but not driven by ICT agendas

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China: Gansu

  • Education quality: Aim to improve the learning environment for teachers and students

  • Capacity Building: Aim to improve the management and administrative capacity and performance of headteachers and education administrators

  • Monitoring and Evaluation: Aim to improve information management and the knowledge base needed for decision-making

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China: Gansu

  • Some achievements by June 2005

    • Successful completion of teacher training Diploma by 438 unqualified primary school teachers

    • 686 Teacher Learning Resource Centres (TLRCs) using ICT established in township schools and county-level teacher training institutes

    • A wide range of training provided for teachers, headteachers and trainers

    • Production of locally relevant learning materials for teachers, using print and video.

    • Scholarships for 77,825 children from poor rural families to enable them to attend school.

    • A core of teachers trained in the use of ICT and capable of supporting others

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China: GansuSuccess Factors

  • Focus on areas and groups which need most help in rural basic education, on educational equity and ensuring the rights of school-age children

  • An emphasis on developing human resources and local capacity in teachers,headteachers, administrators and teacher trainers, rather than on equipment provision

  • Implementation of a new model of school-based training to suit the needs of rural teachers

  • Development of policy as well as practice and close linkage with policy initiatives

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China: GansuSuccess Factors

  • Innovative design and production of learning materials for rural teachers,combining print and video

  • Close collaboration: national and international consultants, project staff, and the Provincial Education Department

  • The appropriate use of new technology in rural contexts

  • Attention to sustainability

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Jordan Education Initiative

  • World Economic Forum Initiative (2003)

  • Key emphasis on partnership

    • Collaboration with government

    • Key role of private sector (Cisco)

  • Importance of teacher training

    • Integral to the programme

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Jordan Education Initiative

  • The Jordan Education Initiative strives to:

    • Improve the delivery of education to Jordan citizens through public-private partnerships

    • Enhance the quality of education through the effective use of ICT

    • Build the capacity of the local ICT industry

    • Create a global education program model for replication in other countries

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Jordan Education Initiative

  • Teacher Training

    • Cisco and Cisco Learning Institute provided training

      • Subject matter experts for content development

      • Teachers in use of new content

  • Results since creation of JEI

    • Expertise transferred to local organizations

    • Mathematics e-curriculum built and deployed in over 70 schools

    • Four additional e-curricula funded and in development

    • Technology and training delivered to over 700 teachers and 70 schools

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UK DfES experiences and strategy

  • ICTs central to transforming teaching and learning in schools

    • Part of very significant e-government agenda

      • 2003 Secretary of State “my vision is one where schools are confidently, successful and routinely exploiting ICT alongside other transformational measures”

  • ICT in teacher education and practice thus only a part of a wider package

    • After many years, still a long way to go!

      • National Grid for Learning programme launched in 1998

    • 2003 report looking towards 2006

      • Drawing out some key dimensions relating to teacher training

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UK DfES strategy : teacher education dimensions

  • Use of ICT for teachers:

    • Enhanced professional status rewarding e-learning practice

    • Access to advice, guidance and support on how ICTs can best be used in classroom practice

    • Access to ICT resources

    • More sophisticated use of pupil data

    • Revitalised professional networks

    • Automation of routine tasks

    • Opportunity to develop innovative learning

    • Rounded approach to digital learning

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UK 2004 ICT in Schools Survey (DfES/Becta)

  • Addressed the following themes:

    • Computers in schools

    • Other ICT equipment

    • Internet and email

    • ICT-related staff confidence and training

    • Use of ICT in school

    • Perceived impact of ICT

      • Especially with SEN and behavioural problems

    • Management and funding

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UK 2004 ICT in Schools Survey

  • Surprisingly teacher training was not really addressed

    • In part because it is taken for granted

  • Key issues

    • Training focused mainly on gaining ICT skills

      • c.90% of teachers had received ITC-training

      • c.85% of staff felt they were e-confident

      • c.90% of teachers had access to computers at home

    • Uses of ICT in the school

      • Management and administration

      • In teaching and learning (c.46% of secondary schools made regular use of ICT for teaching and learning)

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UK Recent initiatives

  • Teachers’ Portal http://www.teachernet.gov.uk

    • Teaching and learning; professional development; management; whole-school issues; research; education overview; useful sites

  • Teachers’ TV http://www.teacherstv.co.uk/

    • Importance of integrating different media

  • Global Gateway http://www.globalgateway.org/

    • Providing teachers with opportunities for linking with schools across the world

    • Shared practices

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Singapore: 1997 Masterplan for IT in Education

  • Key importance of teachers

  • Human Resources

    • Training every teacher in effective use of IT in education

    • Equipping trainee teachers with core skills in teaching with IT

    • Involving institutions of higher learning and industry as partners in schools

  • Infrastructure

    • 2:1 teacher-computer ratio

    • School-wide network

    • High-speed multimedia network across Singapore

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Singapore: teacher achievements

  • 2001 survey of teacher achievements

    • 24,000 teachers received 30-50 hours training in use of IT

    • IT integrated across the curriculum

    • 78% of teachers said that IT helped to make teaching more student centred

  • Importance of rewards and prizes for innovation

    • HP Innovation in IT Awards

  • Wider benefits for pupils, schools and communities

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Success Principles for use of ICT in Teacher Training

  • Integrated cohesive plan with sufficient funding

  • Involving all stakeholders

    • especially the teachers

  • Combining in-service and pre-service elements

  • Sufficient technical support (infrastructure and mentoring advice)

  • Building on existing examples of success

  • Need for partnerships to ensure sustainability

  • Wider links to teacher professional development and reward schemes

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A final plea

  • Remember the most marginalised

    • Those with ‘disabilities’

    • Street children and out-of-school youth

  • Need to ensure that ICTs are used to empower them

    • Not add to their marginalisation