ict ethics bigger task 2 aki heikkinen n.
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ICT Ethics Bigger Task 2 Aki Heikkinen. Artificial intelligence/Robotics. What is artificial intelligence?. Artificial intelligence (AI) is an art to duplicate human intelligence for non-living devices [2].

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what is artificial intelligence
What is artificial intelligence?
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) is an art to duplicate human intelligence for non-living devices [2].
  • Modern day artificial intelligence is collection of computation operations which makes a machine function toward a specific goal [1].
  • AI consists perceiving an environment/object, reasoning and decision making [1].
  • The result of all three factors is an act or action toward the specific goal.
history of ai
History of AI
  • Earliest examples of conceptual AI can be found from Greek myths [2].
  • ”We shall be like gods. We shall duplicate God’s greatest miracle – the creation of man” – Paracelus (1493 - 1541) [2].
  • AI has always been famous subject in literature. For example Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818)
history of ai1
History of AI
  • Isaac Asimov (1950): Three Rules of Robotics:

1) A Robot may not injure a human being, or through inaction allow a human being to come to harm.

2) A robot must obey the orders gtiven it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law

3) A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

history of ai2
History of AI
  • From the late 1970s the boom of smart computing started [2].
  • Research of AI has become genuinely international during 25 years [2].
  • In the early 1980s intelligent robotic systems were being installed in factories and other ”expert systems” were introduced for real-life situations (for example chess-playing) [2].
history of ai3
History of AI
  • In the 1990s and early 21st centry, AI achieved great success for example in logistics, data mining and in medical diagnosis [3].
  • During this decade AI has been successfully used in robot or other intelligent machines (called autonomous or intelligent agents) [4].
  • Even thou till today the following question is still open: ”Can a machine think?” [2]
ai limitations
AI Limitations
  • Because the human intelligence is hard to predict, most AI researches have limited their study to limited number of areas regarding human thinking ability [4].
  • Only AI can only solve problems that can be presented in symbolic ways and reasoned with logic [4].
  • Even some real-world problems that are easy for human to solve are still intractable for current machines [4].
ai ethics
AI Ethics
  • ”We want the machines to do those things we are not able to do because we are not good at them, yet we do not want them to get too good.” [4]
  • We can’t be assurred that machines share our own values, truths and virtues [4].
  • In possible future machines will become more intelligent and have more responsibilities and autonomy, which only humans have been known to have [4].
ai ethical questions
AI Ethical questions

Questions regarding intelligent agents [4]:

  • How will humans perceive intelligent agents?
  • How will autonomous agents feel about humans?
  • Can humans let intelligent agents keep on getting more intelligent even if it would surpass human intelligence?
  • How intelligent agents will do what they are suppose to do?
  • Will intelligent agent do only what they are suppose to do?
ai ethical questions1
AI Ethical questions

Questions regarding intelligent agents [4]:

  • Who will be responsible for the actions of intelligent agents?
  • Will intelligent agents outperform their owners?
  • Will they eventually eliminate the need for human skills?
  • How much power and autonomy should human give to intelligent agents? Will these intelligent agents eventually take away human autonomy and consequently take control of human destiny?
ai ethical questions2
AI Ethical questions

Legal and moral issues [5]:

  • How AI may be used to benefit humanity?
  • Should human rights be applied to intelligent agents if they can be created to be sentient creates?
  • Can intelligent agent be sentenced like human beings?
  • Is it right to play creator by creating intelligence?
the case 1 skynet effect
The case 1: Skynet-effect
  • Government defense section wants to develop new computer system for military intelligence that is mainly maintained by advanced artificial intelligent. This request is made because it’s hard and slow for humans to operate all these tasks. The system would also be more cost-effective compared to 1000 humans fullday job salary.

Some designs:

  • Humans can interfer with the system anytime when necessary.
  • The system is desgined to handle all everyday jobs dealing with general military intelligence and inform humans from possible threats.
  • To make the system as much effective its desgined to have access to all military and classified intelligence information.
  • In addition the system is also designed to have capability in quick decision making during critical-situations such as launching nuclear weapon.
the case 1 skynet effect1
The case 1: Skynet-effect

Questions regarding the case:

  • How much responsibility can humans give to computer system?
  • How much power can we give to computer system?
  • Can be we assurred that the system won’t remove, malform or share classified informations?
  • Is it ethically right to replace 1000 human employee with an intelligent computer system?
  • If the system will do something unnecessary but harmful who are the ones to blaim? Engineers?
the case 2 total autonomy
The case 2: Total autonomy
  • Super-intelligent humanoid robot (Rusty) is created which can learn new things using advanced semantic neural networking technology.
  • Rusty has only three rules (Isaac Asimov’s Three Rules of Robotics) which filter it’s decision and learning activities.
  • When Rusty is first time activated it doesn’t know anything (’tabula rasa’). It simply have only lots of sensors, algorithms and basic initial moving functionalities which it can use to learn new things.
  • First thing Rusty learns is to how to maintain balance and walk using legs. Secondly it starts to observe enrivonment and learn new things.
  • After a year Rusty has learned lots of things about our world.
the case 2 total autonomy1
The case 2: Total autonomy
  • Subcase 1: Rusty has run out of memory capacity. It has learned what computer memory is and how it can be installed. Rusty also has learned that such memory can bought it from local hardware store. Can Rusty upgade himself?
  • Subcase 2: Rusty has learned that adopting a child is beneficial for majority. Can Rusty adopt a human child?
  • Subcase 3: One day heroic Rusty protects bank empoyees from robbery by sealing them in safe. However Rusty has not learned that there is no air in the particular safe and people die inside. Can Rusty be sentenced because of his act? After all he has capability to learn that what he did was wrong.

[1] National Research Council Staff (1997). Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press.

[2] McCorduck, P. (2004). Machines Who Think : A Personal Inquiry into the History and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence. A K Peters, Limited

[3] Wikipedia: Artificial Intelligence. WWW-page, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_intelligence (10.12.2009)

[4] Kizza, J M. (2002). Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age. Springer-Verlag New York, Incorporated

[5] Wikipedia: Ethics of artificial Intelligence. WWW-page, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethics_of_artificial_intelligence(10.12.2009)