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Infection Control & Safety Awareness. Bobi A. Crump, RN, MSN, CPNP Pediatric Nurse Practitioner. Definitions. INFECT – to enter, invade or inhabit another organism, causing infection or contamination. To communicate a pathogen (germ) or disease. To transmit or copy.

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infection control safety awareness

Infection Control & Safety Awareness

Bobi A. Crump, RN, MSN, CPNP

Pediatric Nurse Practitioner

  • INFECT – to enter, invade or inhabit another organism, causing infection or contamination. To communicate a pathogen (germ) or disease. To transmit or copy.
  • INFECTION – multiplication of an organism within the body. Rapid communication or spread. The body’s defenses are overwhelmed.
the definition
The Definition
    • to be in readiness for
    • to keep from happening or existing
    • to hinder or stop
    • to interpose an obstacle
why is this important
Why is this important?
  • Infectious diseases cause major problems for individuals and communities throughout the world.
  • Everyday the body is exposed to millions of microorganisms (germs, pathogens) that can cause illness and infection if they penetrate the body’s natural defenses.
organisms that cause infection
Organisms that Cause Infection
  • Viruses
  • Bacteria
  • Parasites
  • Fungus
transmission by contact
Transmission by Contact
  • Direct Contact – an infected person comes into contact with a potential (susceptible) host (any other person).
  • Indirect Contact – a germ contaminates an object. Blood on an item or spoiled food. Fecal-Oral.
  • Droplet Spread – (airborne) germs are spread through the air when an infected person talks, coughs or sneezes.
natural defenses
Natural Defenses
  • Intact skin
  • Tears
  • Saliva
  • Healthy cough and sneezes
  • Intact immune system, fever
  • Minimal stress = Optimal function
head to toe specifics
Head to Toe Specifics
  • Scalp – lice, tinea capitis
  • Ears – swimmer’s ear
  • Eyes – conjunctivitis (pink eye)
  • Nose – allergies, sinusitis, entry to the respiratory system
  • Mouth – tooth decay, food poisoning
  • Throat – strep throat, inner ear infections

Pediculosus louse

Scalp ringworm


  • Reactive Airway Disease (RAD)
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
  • Croup (bronchiolitis)
  • Colds and Flu
  • Pneumonia
  • Chronic Bronchitis, Asthma
  • Tuberculosis
specifics about tb
Specifics About TB
  • Mycobacterium (very small bacteria)
  • Spread by droplets
    • Coughs, sneezes, speaks, sings, spits
  • Cover all coughs and sneezes with a tissue
      • The particles are so small that normal air currents can keep them airborne for hours, spreading them throughout a room or building
your exposure risk
Your Exposure Risk
  • Exposure to Active TB that is



Indoor Air Contact

(poor ventilation)

latent tb vs active tb
No symptoms

Not contagious

Positive PPD skin test

Takes months to years to develop active TB

You may never develop active TB

Prolonged painful coughing, blood tinged


Fever (low grade)

Weight Loss

Night sweats

You are contagious

You need treatment

Latent TB vs. Active TB
  • Vomiting and diarrhea
  • Food Poisoning
    • Salmonella, Shigella, E. Coli
  • Rotavirus, giardia
  • Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E
  • Peptic Ulcers (H. Pylori)
  • Worms (pin, round, tape)
genito urinary system
Genito-Urinary System
  • Urinary Tract Infections
  • Kidney Infections
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
      • Chlamydia
      • Gonorrhea
      • Syphilis
      • Herpes Simplex
circulatory or systemic
Circulatory or Systemic
  • Sepsis
  • Blood borne pathogens
      • Hepatitis B
      • Hepatitis C
      • HIV/AIDS – human immunodeficiency virus
  • Meningitis
  • Encephalitis
specifics about hepatitis and hiv
Specifics About Hepatitis and HIV
  • Viruses spread by blood or body fluid contact (semen, vaginal secretions, other fluids with blood)
  • Direct Transmission – contaminated material enters through broken skin, or splashes eyes, nose or mouth
  • Indirect Transmission – contaminated environmental surfaces
      • HBV can live dried and at room temperature for up to one week
exposure infection rates
Exposure = Infection Rates
  • If exposed to infectious material and unvaccinated your risks:
    • Hepatitis B = 30%
    • Hepatitis C = 10 %
    • HIV = 0.3 %
specifics about hepatitis and hiv1
Specifics About Hepatitis and HIV
  • Universal Precautions = Standard Precautions
    • Personal protective equipment
      • Gloves, masks, gowns, aprons, lab coats
      • Protective eyewear, mouthpieces or bags
  • Wash your hands!
  • The sooner you wash off contaminated

material the less likely you are to

become infected

  • Hepatitis B vaccination is highly recommended
  • Contact dermatitis (poison ivy, oak)
  • Diaper rash, intertriginous zone rash
  • Impetigo
  • Scabies
  • Tinea pedis (athlete’s foot), corporis (ringworm)
  • Cellulitis (from trauma or animal bites)
  • MRSA–methicillin resistant S. aureus
  • Sun and Thermal Burns


Contact Dermatitis



Tinea Pedis = athlete’s foot

Tinea Unguium = Onychomycosis

Tinea Corporis = any area of the body

mrsa methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus
MRSAMethicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

S. Aureus:

  • thrives on human skin and mucous membranes (boils/cellulitis/sepsis)
  • grows rapidly with/without oxygen
  • can be carried by a host for a long period of time without causing infection
who gets mrsa
Who Gets MRSA?
  • Prolonged hospital stay (elderly, very sick, immunosuppression)
  • Receiving broad spectrum antibiotics
  • Hospitalized in ICU or burn unit
  • Recent surgery
  • Carrying MRSA in the nose without developing illness
  • Spending time close to other patients with MRSA
mrsa placement
MRSA & Placement
  • MRSA status (negative culture, colonized, or infected) with regard to hospital and non-acute care facility admission warrants attention.
  • An institution should not deny admission to a person colonized or infected with MRSA if adequate facilities are available to deal with MRSA.
non acute care facility
Non-Acute Care Facility
  • Private room is preferred for infected or colonized patients
  • A MRSA colonized patient can be placed with a non-colonized patient who is not at high risk for infection
  • A colonized patient with poor hygiene may need a private room.
prevention in 6 steps
Prevention in 6 Steps
  • Hand Washing
  • Clean and Disinfect
  • Food Preparation and Storage
  • Immunizations/Vaccinations
  • Use Antibiotics Appropriately
  • Avoid Wild or Unknown Animals
hand washing
  • Why? You infect yourself by touching your eyes, nose or your mouth
  • Big deal? You can also spread germs directly to others or onto surfaces…before you know it everyone around you is sick
  • So? It is THE MOST IMPORTANT way to prevent infection
when should you wash
When should you wash?
  • Before, during and after food prep
  • Before and After you eat
  • Before and After Toileting
  • After changing a diaper or assisting another
  • After handling animals or waste
  • When your hands are dirty
  • Frequently if near sickness
clean and disinfect
Clean and Disinfect
  • Cleaning with soap and water removes dirt and most germs.
  • Disinfecting kills additional germs on surfaces
  • Hot spots:
    • Kitchen, Bathroom
    • Shared equipment, Telephones, remote control
how to disinfect
How to Disinfect
  • Wear gloves, especially if you have cuts or nicks
  • Clean the surface first with soap and water
  • Use a disinfectant according to the label
  • Store in original containers out of children’s reach

Wash hands, even if you wore gloves

food preparation and storage
Food Preparation and Storage
  • Food borne illness kills up to 9,000 people per year
  • 80 million Americans per year suffer from fever, stomach cramps, vomiting and diarrhea
remember food storage and handling guidelines
Remember Food Storage and Handling guidelines
  • Proper preparation of foods
  • Proper handling
  • Proper storage or refrigeration
immunizations vaccinations
  • A very easy, inexpensive way to save lives
  • Fights disease in two ways:
    • Protects you
    • Prevents you from spreading disease
  • Immunizations across the lifespan
      • Flu, Td boosters, Pneumococcal conjugate, Varicella
appropriate antibiotics
Appropriate Antibiotics
  • Drugs used to treat certain illnesses
  • Antibiotics do NOT work on viruses
  • Antibiotics do Kill certain bacteria
  • Take medication only and exactly as prescribed
  • Drug resistance
    • Each time an antibiotic is used unnecessarily or improperly, you increase the chance of developing drug resistance
avoid wild animals
Avoid Wild Animals
  • Rodents – transmit hantavirus and plague
  • Ticks – transmit Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Lyme disease
  • Mosquitoes – malaria, encephalitis, West Nile Virus
  • Mammals – transmit rabies
  • Reptiles – transmit salmonella, e.coli or venomous bites
safety specifics for acrc consumers
Safety Specifics for ACRC Consumers
  • Do they have sunscreen, lip balm?
  • Wearing light colored clothing/helmets?
  • Is water available?
  • Are they in shade in the car?
  • How hot is the car seat?
  • Is there proper ID for

communication impaired?

safety specifics for acrc consumers1
Safety Specifics for ACRC Consumers
  • What are their allergies?
  • What medications & side effects?
    • Cause dehydration, sun exposure
  • What dietary restrictions?
  • Is there adequate supervision?
    • Consumer to staff ratio
safety specifics for acrc consumers2
Safety Specifics for ACRC Consumers
  • What are the existing medical conditions that place that person at risk?
    • Infections
    • Seizure Disorders
    • Heart Disease
    • Metabolic problems - diabetes
health promotion
Health Promotion
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Good Sleep Hygiene
  • Appropriate Nutrition
  • Adequate Hydration
  • Take Care Of Your Teeth


Bobi A. Crump, RN, MSN, CPNP