The Age of Reason THESCIENTIFICREVOLUTION AND ENLIGHTENMENT
The Scientific Revolution • Major change in science and mathematics during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries where logic, reason, and knowledge were used to explain the physical world/universe.
CAUSES • Renaissance (Humanism) • All life has meaning • Live earthly life to the fullest • Inquiring spirit • Well-roundedness • Reformation • Church doctrine questioned • Printing Press (Gutenberg)
1. Nicolaus Copernicus 2. Johannes Kepler 3. Galileo Galilei 4. Francis Bacon 5. Rene Descartes 6. Isaac Newton 7. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 8. Andreas Vesalius 9. Edward Jenner 10. Robert Boyle 11. Margaret Cavendish 12. Maria Winkelmann Key contributors to the Scientific Revolution
Follow-up Questions • What role did location (where these scientists were born or lived) and when they were born or lived play in their ability to forward new ideas? • Was there a connection between family status and educational background? • How did this help? • Other trends/common themes?
The Enlightenment • Intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries • Applies principles of reason to examine society • How do the changes made during the Scientific Revolution affect the Enlightenment? How are they similar? Different? • The same thought process (use of logic and reason) used to reevaluate old notions in math and science can be applied to things like politics, religion, economics, and education.
Thomas Hobbes • Evaluated man’s Natural State • Found people were naturally selfish, ambitious, and cruel and if they ruled themselves life would be nasty, brutish, and short. (English Civil War) • Therefore, there must be an agreement to submit to authority in exchange for order (social contract theory) • Hobbes believed an absolute monarchy was the best way to control society
John Locke • Also evaluated the natural state of man. • Unlike Hobbes however, Locke believed humans were reasonable beings that could look after their own affairs and the welfare of society. • All men have natural rights of life, liberty, and property (Declaration of Independence) • Government power comes from the people; must protect people’s rights otherwise the people have the right to overthrow an unjust government
Other Enlightenment Thinkers (Philosophes) • Voltaire • Argued for tolerance, freedom of religion, free speech • Montesquieu • Natural tendency for people in power is to try and keep/increase their own power (abuse it) • Separation of powers into legislative, executive, and judicial branches (Constitution) • Federalism (divides government into levels) • Rousseau • Social Contract an agreement among free people • More reliance on emotion and natural instinct than reason
Other Notables • Beccaria • Believed laws existed to preserve social order • Advocated criminal justice system based on fairness and reason • Wollstonecraft • Believed that women, like men, need education to become virtuous and useful • Argued for women’s rights to become educated and to participate in politics
Enlightenment Notes Continued • Logic and Reason (The Age of Reason) • Order and Balance • Physical World • Newton’s comparison of universe as a giant clock – orderly set of rules for the physical world • Society • What brings order and balance to society? • Equality (equilibrium) • Liberty (freedom) – natural rights • Art, Music, Architecture • Mozart – creating compositions based on order and balance (notes, instruments, etc.) – combined to create simplistic but elegant (refined) works (neo-classical vs. baroque)
American Revolution DVD notes • What Enlightenment ideals were infused into American culture from the American Revolution? • Equality • Liberty (freedom) • Happiness for ordinary people too (pursuit of...) • Constitutionalism – orderly set of laws for society and for government to follow (contract) • “wild optimism” – taking on #1 power in world and expect to win • Overcoming adversity (underdog) • Ability to climb “social ladder” (short but shaky) – fluid society • “Self-made man” – Ben Franklin • Contradictions – slavery, liberty v. authority, tar and feathering
American Revolution DVD cont. • What was the financial situation for the colonists? • They paid very little taxes in reality • No taxation without representation??? • Boston Massacre??? • Both are propaganda – S. Adams (Sons of Liberty) • So what is the main reason the colonist are upset? • Want right to govern ourselves (Independence) • Tough sell – 1/3 for it, 1/3 against, and 1/3 in middle
Constitution Day • September 17th (adopted that day 1787) • Our Revolution is one of the only revolutions in human history where those who won and took power created a document that forced them to give it up. • Overall purpose of document? • Provide central (federal) gov’t enough power to keep country safe and provide for general welfare BUT also ... and most importantly ... keep it restrained (limited)!
The U.S. Constitution • Article I - Establishes Legislative Branch • Section 1 • Establishes that all legislative powers belong to Congress (Senate and House of Representatives) • Section 2 • Establishes House of Representatives (Rules and Procedures) • Section 3 • Establishes Senate • Sections 4-7 • Establishes Rules and Procedures for both houses • Sections 8-10 • Establishes delegated, concurrent, and reserved powers • Why so much attention to Article I? • Power that could be abused most – must be restrained
U.S. Constitution (cont.) • Article II - Establishes Executive Branch • Section 1 • Establishes all executive power to President • Procedure for electing president and vice president, requirements, etc... • Section 2 • Outlines Presidential powers • Section 3 • Duties (State of Union, joint sessions of congress, etc) • Section 4 • Impeachment (removal from office)
U.S. Constitution (cont) • Article III - Establishes Judicial Branch • Section 1 • Establishes that judicial power given to the Supreme Court and other federal courts • Section 2 • Federal powers and jurisdictions (what they can rule on) • Section 3 • Establishes definition of treason and punishment for it
U.S. Constitution (cont) • Article IV • Relationship between the states and federal government (consistent set of laws, procedures, and rules between the states and affecting the states in general) • Article V • Amendment process (how to make changes in the Constitution) • 2/3’s of Congress or states to propose; ¾’s of the states to ratify it • Article VI • All debts, contracts, etc... Under Articles of Confederation are still valid • Supremacy Clause (Clause 2) • Oath to defend Constitution (civic officials) • Article VII • Ratification • want unanimous approval • Why important?