Types of research
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Types of Research. Pure Applied Action. Types of Research. Experimental Quasi-Experimental Descriptive Correlational Descriptive. Experimental Research. Establishes a cause and effect relationship. Allows generalization to a similar population.

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Types of research
Types of Research

  • Pure

  • Applied

  • Action

Types of research1
Types of Research

  • Experimental

  • Quasi-Experimental

  • Descriptive Correlational

  • Descriptive

Experimental research

  • Establishes a cause and effect relationship.

  • Allows generalization to a similar population.

  • Employs an experimental group versus control group design determined by random assignment to the groups.

Quasi experimental research
Quasi-Experimental Research

  • Suggests a cause and effect relationship.

  • Allows tentative generalization to a similar population.

  • Employs an experimental group versus control group design with no random assignment to the groups or a pretest versus posttest design.

Descriptive correlational research
Descriptive Correlational Research

  • Establishes the existence of a predictive relationship.

  • Uses two or more sets of data to examine the existence and strength of a relationship between them.

Descriptive research
Descriptive Research

  • The researcher describes what exists.

  • The researcher does not attempt to change the sample in any way.

Educational experimental or quasi experimental research design
Educational Experimental or Quasi-Experimental Research Design

  • Determine the research problem or question.

  • Compare the effects of an educational treatment (called the independent variable) on one or more groups.

  • The independent variable or treatment is hypothesized to be the cause of any differences in the groups following treatment.

Examples of independent variable s in education
Examples of Independent Variable(s) in Education Design

  • Curriculum: Whole language versus traditional curriculum

  • Instruction: Remedial intervention versus no intervention or remedial intervention pretest and posttest scores.

Examples of independent variable s in education1
Examples of Independent Variable(s) in Education Design

  • Grouping: Ability grouping versus no grouping or ability grouping versus cooperative grouping.

  • Student: Good readers versus poor readers or middle school students versus high school students.

Dependent variable s in education
Dependent Variable(s) in Education Design

  • What is measured in order to establish the effect of the treatment

  • Involves numbers that can be submitted to statistical analysis

Examples of dependent variables in education
Examples of Dependent Variables in Education Design

  • Scores on standardized tests.

  • Scores on researcher designed tests and/or rubrics.

  • Scores on published informal instruments.

Extraneous variables
Extraneous Variables Design

  • Any factor that can cause an effect other than the independent variable

  • Or—

  • Any factor that can prevent the effect of the independent variable

Establishing group similarity
Establishing Group Similarity Design

  • Random assignment

  • Similar sex

  • Similar age

  • Similar achievement levels

  • Similar time constraints

  • Other?

Analyzing group differences
Analyzing Group Differences Design

  • Compare group scores ( group versus group or pre versus post) on dependent measures.

  • Use a statistical formula to determine if scores are significantly different: t-test, ANOVA.

Generalize to population
Generalize to Population Design

  • If the treatment was effective with the chosen sample, it will probably have the same effect with a similar population.

Descriptive correlational research1
Descriptive Correlational Research Design

  • Will be explained in detail in a later class.

Descriptive research design
Descriptive Research Design Design

  • Determine the research problem or question.

  • Determine the sample.

  • Determine the units of data analysis. (In order to use statistical formulas, these must be quantified in some way).

Typical ways to do data analysis
Typical Ways to do Data Analysis Design

  • Survey/questionnaire

  • Observation

  • Interview

  • Audiotape or videotape

  • Text: book, student work, etc.

  • Unit of data analysis/categories may emerge as the study is implemented.

Method of data analysis
Method of Data Analysis Design

  • To divide observations into categories of behavior (units of analysis

  • Code and audio/videotape into categories of behavior

  • Determine patterns of survey response

  • Analyze interviews according to topics

Analysis of data
Analysis of Data Design

  • May use statistical formulas if quantified.

  • May involve narration.

Action research
Action Research Design

  • Can employ an experimental, quasi-experimental, descriptive correlational or descriptive design.

  • Will probably involve a predetermined sample.

  • Use of a predetermined sample limits generalizing beyond the population studied.