Knowledge Management Systems to support a Brand . The composition of the business environment . All the factors or variables both inside as well as outside the business organization which may influence the continued and successful existence of the business organization . The microenvironment .
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The composition of the business environment All the factors or variables both inside as well as outside the business organization which may influence the continued and successful existence of the business organization
The microenvironment • Consists of 3 variables – vision, mission and objectives – management – resources • These variables responsible for the output of the organization • Under direct control of management • Analysis of these will lead to strengths & weaknesses of the organization • All variables linked to external environment in some way • Vision, mission, objectives = reason for existence • Management or functions – marketing finance etc. • Resources = tangible resources , intangible resources and organizational capabilities
7 Functional areas • General management • Marketing management • Financial management • Production • Purchasing • HR • PR
Defining Management • Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. • Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources.
Link between business and KM • People • Required skills & experience • Informal people networks • Communities of Practice • Infrastructure & technologies • Web • Intranets • Processes • Training programmes
Theoretical link - Peter Drucker • The challenge for management in the 20th century was to leverage physical assets. • The management challenge for the 21st century will be to leverage the value of knowledge workers Management Challenges for the 21st Century Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford “Knowledge is power, which is why people who had it often tried to make a secret of it. Power comes from transmitting information to make it productive, not from hiding it”
Knowledge Information Data KNOWLEDGE PYRAMID
DIK- Pyramid • Data = collection of facts, measurements, statistics • Information = organized data • Knowledge = contextual, relevant, actionable information • Strong experiential and reflective elements • Good leverage and increasing returns • Dynamic • Branches and fragments with growth • Difficult to estimate impact of investment • Uncertain value in sharing • Evolves over time with experience
2 Types of Knowledge • Explicit knowledge • Objective, rational, technical • Policies, goals, strategies, papers, reports • Codified • Leaky knowledge • Tacit knowledge • Subjective, cognitive, experiential learning • Highly personalized • Difficult to formalize • Sticky knowledge
Knowledge Management • Process to help organisation identify, select, organise, disseminate, transfer information • Structuring enables problem-solving, dynamic learning, strategic planning, decision-making • Leverage value of intellectual capital through reuse
Knowledge Management • Systematic and active management of ideas, information, and knowledge residing within organisation’s employees • Knowledge management systems • Use of technologies to manage knowledge • Used with turnover, change, downsizing • Provide consistent levels of service
Knowledge Management Initiatives • Aims • Make knowledge visible • Develop knowledge intensive culture • Build knowledge infrastructure • Surrounding processes • Creation of knowledge • Sharing of knowledge • Seeking out knowledge • Using knowledge
Approaches to Knowledge Management • Process Approach • Codifies knowledge • Formalised controls, approaches, technologies • Fails to capture most tacit knowledge • Practice Approach • Assumes that most knowledge is tacit • Informal systems • Social events, communities of practice, person-to-person contacts • Challenge to make tacit knowledge explicit, capture it, add to it, transfer it
Approaches to Knowledge Management • Hybrid Approach • Practice approach initially used to store explicit knowledge • Tacit knowledge primarily stored as contact information • Best practices captured and managed • Best practices • Methods that effective organisations use to operate and manage functions • Knowledge repository • Place for capture and storage of knowledge • Different storage mechanisms depending upon data captured
Knowledge Management Tools Knowledge management tools are technologies, broadly defined, which enhance and enable knowledge generation, codification, and transfer. As with any tools, they are designed to ease the burden of work, through augmentation and automation, allowing resources to be applied efficiently to the tasks for witch they are most suited.
Examples of Knowledge Management Tools • Knowledge Maps - Establish a classification scheme called a taxonomy of knowledge, provide a frame of reference for many knowledge management products, and serve as a critical first step for identifying available knowledge • Electronic yellow-page directories Aid in finding hard-to-access tacit knowledge resources by providing access to experts. They also organise existing web sites and serve up a variety of explicit knowledge assets in understandable ways.
Examples of Knowledge Management Tools • Apprenticeship programs: Are typically one-on-one type relationships where an expert coaches a less experience person in various forms. • Communities of practice:Support groups of individuals with similar work responsibilities but who are not part of a formally designated work team. Many communities of practice communicate through a web-based system.
Examples of Knowledge Management Tools • Lectures and story telling: Allow people to gain more understanding and have greater recall then they do from written reports. Stories can be used to capture lectures on a particular topic, to capture after action reports, to record difficult to codify tacit knowledge, and for many other purposes. Web-based software systems exist that support this knowledge management tool
Examples of Knowledge Management Tools • Frequently asked questions: In the course of performing a job, people naturally identify questions that their co-workers or their clients ask repeatedly. It is worthwhile to document and develop useful and standardised answers for these types of repetitive questions. Web-based systems also exist that specialise in the management of these questions.
Examples of Knowledge Management Tools • Web-based learning: Allows to translate a typical classroom experience to an online media to offer students the opportunity to learn codified knowledge in a structure way at their own pace. • Scientific content management sites: Collects knowledge in some kind of web-based content management system. First, the knowledge has to be found, organised, synthesized, reviewed for quality, and uploaded for availability. Second, the knowledge content has to be updated and maintained so it keeps its currency. Software systems exist that support both of these functions.
Examples of Knowledge Management Tools • Simulation models: Are a popular way to organise specific problem solving knowledge and provide precise, quantitative answers to guide natural resource managers. Most such models have not yet been converted to execute over the internet, however, many simulation models can be downloaded from the internet and then executed on a stand-alone computer
Examples of Knowledge Management Tools • Free-content information collaboratories: Create and distribute free information content, e.g., encyclopaedia. Articles are edited by volunteers and are subject to change by nearly anyone. They cover a wide range of topics, but lack the authority of traditional materials and lack the chance of a quality control regarding the content.
Examples of Knowledge Management Tools • Web portals: Provide links to many other sites that can either be accessed directly or can be found by following an organised sequence of related categories. The provider of a web portal is responsible for structuring and filtering of web-addresses relating to a special theme.
Knowledge Management System Cycle • Creates knowledge through new ways of doing things • Identifies and captures new knowledge • Places knowledge into context so it is usable • Stores knowledge in repository • Reviews for accuracy and relevance • Makes knowledge available at all times to anyone
Components of Knowledge Management Systems • Technologies • Communication • Access knowledge • Communicates with others • Collaboration • Perform groupwork • Synchronous or asynchronous • Same place/different place • Storage and retrieval • Capture, storing, retrieval, and management of both explicit and tacit knowledge through collaborative systems
Components of Knowledge Management Systems • Supporting technologies • Artificial intelligence • Expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy logic, intelligent agents • Intelligent agents • Systems that learn how users work and provide assistance • Knowledge discovery in databases • Process used to search for and extract information • Internal = data and document mining • External = model marts and model warehouses • XML • Extensible Markup Language • Enables standardized representations of data • Better collaboration and communication through portals
Knowledge Management System Implementation • Challenge to identify and integrate components • Early systems developed with networks, groupware, databases • Knowware • Technology tools that support knowledge management • Collaborative computing tools • Groupware • Knowledge servers • Enterprise knowledge portals • Document management systems • Content management systems • Knowledge harvesting tools • Search engines • Knowledge management suites • Complete out-of-the-box solutions
Knowledge Management System Implementation • Implementation • Software packages available • Include one or more tools • Consulting firms • Outsourcing • Application Service Providers
Examples of Knowledge Management Systems • Xerox built a Web-based maintenance knowledge base for field engineers who repair copiers • AT&T developed a “people finder” database that provides an on-line directory of “who knows what” (a knowledge directory) • HP has a Web-based site that provides knowledge about competitors, research, products, and customer satisfaction • Dow Chemical devised a system to manage its patents. To keep a patent enforced can cost up to $250,000. Dow needed to determine which patents had value. Saved over 40 million in 18 months
Human Resources associated with Knowledge Management • Chief knowledge officer • Senior level • Sets strategic priorities • Defines area of knowledge based on organization mission and goals • Creates infrastructure • Identifies knowledge champions • Manages content produced by groups • Adds to knowledge base • CEO • Champion knowledge management • Upper management • Ensures availability of resources to CKO • Communities of practice • Knowledge management system developers • Team members that develop system • Knowledge management system staff • Catalog and manage knowledge
Knowledge Management System Integration • Database • Knowledge discovery in databases • CRM • Provide tacit knowledge to users • Supply chain management systems • Can access combined tacit and explicit knowledge • Corporate intranets and extranets • Knowledge flows more freely in both directions • Capture knowledge directly with little user involvement • Deliver knowledge when system thinks it is needed
Knowledge Management Valuation • Asset-based approaches • Identifies intellectual assets • Focuses on increasing value • Knowledge linked to applications and business benefits approaches • Balanced scorecard • Economic value added • Inclusive valuation methodology • Return on management ratio • Knowledge capital measure • Estimated sale price approach
Knowledge Management Metrics • Financial • ROI • Perceptual, rather than absolute • Intellectual capital not considered an asset • Non-financial • Value of intangibles • External relationship linkages capital • Structural capital • Human capital • Social capital • Environmental capital
Factors Leading to Success and Failure of Systems • Success • Companies must assess need • System needs technical and organisational infrastructure to build on • System must have economic value to organisation • Senior management support • Organisation needs multiple channels for knowledge transfer • Appropriate organisational culture • Failure • System does not meet organisation’s needs • Lack of commitment • No incentive to use system • Lack of integration
Conclusion • KM - beyond fad – a distinct management concept suggesting it’s prudent to manage the intellectual assets of an enterprise, to cultivate for advantage in the marketplace • KM is complex, integrative with other disciplines • Old skills and abilities don’t necessarily work in KM environment – must be redefined, polished, updated • Principles and concepts are not new- what’s new is the merger with technology to do so and practical applications
“Knowledge itself is power.” Francis Bacon
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TDYWpqtDAko • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O1PSSxB4Lxs&feature=related